Virginia L. Butler
Professor of Anthropology

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Butler, V.L. 1993 Natural vs. cultural salmonid remains: origin of The Dalles Roadcut bones, Columbia River, Oregon. Journal of Archaeological Science 20:1-24. View Full Text PDF (5.0MB)
Butler, V.L. & J.C. Chatters 1994 The role of bone density in structuring prehistoric salmon bone assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science 21:413-424. View Full Text PDF (2.6MB)
Butler, V.L. 1994 Fish feeding behaviour and fish capture: the case for variation in Lapita fishing strategies. Archaeology in Oceania 29:81-90.  
Chatters, J.C., V.L. Butler, M.J. Scott, D.M. Anderson, and D.N. Neitzel 1995 A paleoscience approach to estimating the effects of climatic warming on salmonid fisheries of the Columbia River basin. Canadian Special Publication of Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 121:489-496. View Full Text PDF (3.3MB)
P.V. Kirch, D.W. Steadman, V.L. Butler, J. Hather, and M.I. Weisler 1995 Prehistory and human ecology in Eastern Polynesia: Excavations at Tangatatau Rockshelter, Mangaia, Cook Islands. Archaeology in Oceania 30:47-65.  
Butler, V.L. 1996 Tui chub taphonomy and the importance of marsh resources in the western Great Basin of North America. American Antiquity 61(4):699-717. View Full Text PDF (4.8MB)
Butler, V.L. and R. A. Schroeder 1998 Do Digestive Processes Leave Diagnostic Traces on Fish Bones? Journal of Archaeological Science 25:957-971. View Full Text PDF (3.4MB)
Butler, V.L. and N. J. Bowers 1998 Ancient DNA from Salmon Bone: A Preliminary Study, Ancient Biomolecules. 2:17-26. View Full Text PDF (2.4MB)
Butler, V.L. 2000 Resource depression on the Northwest Coast of North America. Antiquity 74:649-661. View Full Text PDF (2.4MB)
Butler , V.L. 2001 Fish Faunal Remains. In Archaeological Survey and Excavations in the Carson Desert and Stillwater Mountains, Nevada, edited by R.L. Kelly, University of Utah Anthropological Papers No 123, Salt Lake City.  
Butler, V.L. 2001 Changing Fish Use on Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands: Resource Depression and the Prey Choice Model. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 11:88-100. View Full Text PDF (2.6MB)
Butler , V.L. and J. E. O'Connor 2004 9,000 years of fishing on the Columbia River. Quaternary Research 62 (1):1-8. View Full-Text PDF (0.7MB)
Butler , V.L. 2004 Where have all the Native Fish Gone? The Fate of the Fish that Lewis and Clark Encountered on the Lower Columbia River. Oregon Historical Quarterly 105(3):438-463. View Full-Text PDF (3.4MB)
Butler , V.L. and M.G. Delacorte 2004 Doing Zooarchaeology as if it Mattered: Use of Faunal Data to Address Current Issues in Fish Conservation Biology in Owens Valley, California. In Archaeology and Conservation Biology, edited by R. Lyman and K. Cannon, University of Utah Press, pp. 25-44. View Full-Text PDF (3.0MB)
Butler, V.L. 2004 Fish Remains. In Marmes Rockshelter: A Final Report on 11,000 Years of Cultural Use, edited by B. A. Hicks, Washington State University Press, Pullman, Washington. pp. 320-337.
The appendices from this report and additional information from this project are available online at the website of the Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University (
View Full-Text PDF (3.8MB)
Butler, V.L and S.K. Campbell 2004 Resource Intensification and Resource Depression in the Pacific Northwest of North America: A Zooarchaeological Review. Journal of World Prehistory 18 (4):327-405. View Full-Text PDF (0.7MB)
Butler, V.L. 2007 Relic Hunting, Archaeology, and Loss of Native American Heritage at The Dalles. Oregon Historical Quarterly 108(4):624-643. View Full-Text PDF (0.6 MB)
Valentine, K., D. Duffield, L.E. Patrick, D.R. Hatch, V.L. Butler, R. Hall, N. Lehman 2008 Ancient DNA reveals genotypic relationships among Oregon populations of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Conservation Genetics 9(4):933-938 View Full-Text PDF (0.2 MB)
Smith R.E. and V.L. Butler 2008 Towards the identification of Lamprey (Lampetra spp.) in archaeological contexts. Journal of Northwest Anthropology. 42(2):131-142. View Full-Text PDF (5.5 MB)
Campbell, S.K. and V.L. Butler 2010 Fishes and Loaves? Explaining Sustainable, Long Term Animal Harvesting on the Northwest Coast using the "Plant Paradigm". In The Archaeology of Anthropogenic Environments. (R.M. Dean, ed), pp.175-203. University of Southern Illinois-Carbondale, Center for Archaeological Investigations Series, Carbondale, Illinois. View Full-Text PDF (3.4 MB)
Campbell, S.K. and V.L. Butler 2010 Archaeological evidence for resilience of Pacific Northwest salmon populations and the socioecological system over the last ~7500 years. Ecology and Society 15(1):17. [online] View web page
Huber, H.R., J.C. Jorgensen, V.L. Butler, G. Baker, R. Stevens 2011 Can salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae be identified to the species level using vertebral morphometrics? Journal of Archaeological Science 38(1):136-146. View Full-Text PDF (1.2 MB)
Miller, J.A., V.L. Butler, C. A. Simenstad, D.H. Backus, A. Kent 2011 Comparison of life history variation in post- and pre-development populations of Columbia River Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using modern and ~500-yr-old archaeological otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68:603-617. View Full-Text PDF (2.2 MB)
Thornton, Thomas F., Madonna L. Moss, Virginia L. Butler, Fritz Funk, Jamie Hebert 2011 Local and Traditional Knowledge and the Historical Ecology of Pacific Herring. Journal of Ecological Anthropology14(1):81-88. View Full-Text PDF (0.6 MB)
Moore, M., D. Wolf, V.L. Butler 2012 Bones and zooarchaeology: students use inquiry science to help solve the mystery of the bones. Science and Children. April/May: 40-45. View Full-Text PDF (0.2 MB)

Last Updated November 2012