Thomas Evans, Sr.
  b: 1747 - Amelia, Co., VA
  d: 25/Oct/1832 - Fentress Co., TN

Father: Robert? Evans
Mother: *****

Spouse: Jane Howerton
  m: 24/Dec/1780 - Prince Edward Co., VA

Child-1: Martha (Patsy)
          2: Nancy
          3: Drewery
          4: Anna
          5: Agnes - b: ~1786 - VA - nra: 1840
                          m: Meredith Clay - 3/Jan/1804 - Montgomery Co., VA
          6: Priscilla
          7: Thomas, Jr. - b: ~1791 - VA - nra: 1840
                                   m: Anne Crowe - 15/Sep/1808 - Montgomery Co., VA
          8: Joshua - b: 1792 - VA
          9: Nathan
        10: John
        11: William - b: 1798 - VA - nra: 1840
        12: Stephen - b: 1800 - VA

Biographical Details:

Thomas Evans was born about 1747, probably in the portion of Amelia County, Virginia, which was later organized as Prince Edward County in 1753.  The names of his parents are not known; however, there is some circumstantial evidence that his father's name may have been Robert.  In support of this, both the names of John and Robert Evans appeared in a 1736 listing of "all titheables below Deep Creek" for Amelia County (before 1734, a part of Prince George County).  This roughly corresponds to the southern two-thirds of Amelia County as it was at the time and today would presumably include both Prince Edward and Nottoway Counties.  Moreover, some family historians have identified Robert Evans, born about 1727 in Big Elk River, Cecil County, Maryland, and died about 1801, in Tazewell County, Virginia, as the father of  Thomas Evans of Prince Edward County.  Indeed, a Thomas Evans is claimed as his son in many geneaologies.  However, the majority of researchers indicate that this Thomas Evans was born about 1762 in that part of Augusta County, Virginia, organized as Botetourt County in 1770 and died September 2, 1829, in Salem, Washington County, Indiana.  One interesting, additional detail is that his nephew (the son of his brother, James Evans) was General Robert Morgan Evans for whom the town of Evansville, Indiana, was named.  It seems most likely that these two Thomas Evanses were different and probably unrelated individuals.

After reaching adulthood, Thomas Evans served in the Revolutionary War (as number 412 in the Virginia State Line).  His military service is substantiated as the basis of a subsequent pension application made in the name of Thomas Evans by his widow, Jane, and attested by her affidavit as well as in affidavits made by other members of the family.1,2  Witnesses indicate that Thomas Evans enlisted near Prince Edward County Courthouse along with his future brother-in-law, James Howerton.3  If this is the case, then the first known military service for Thomas Evans was in December of 1775 when the Fourth Virginia Regiment of continental troops was enlisted under Captain John Morton and which, subsequently came under the command of Colonel Adam Stevens.  This unit left for Suffolk, Virginia, in March, 1776, where at this location and at Portsmouth they fought with Lord Dunsmore's forces.  Afterward, they left Virginia, going to Head of Elk River in Maryland, and from there through Philadephia and Newark to New Brunswick, New Jersey, where they joined General George Washington's Army after its retreat from Fort Washington.  This regiment participated in a number of battles, including notable engagements at Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, and Germantown, and was encamped at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, during the winter of 1777-1778.  It seems that both Thomas Evans and James Howerton were discharged sometime in 1778 at Philadelphia and returned to Virginia.  Jane Howerton and Thomas Evans were married  December 24, 1780, in Prince Edward County, Virginia.  John MacKelvay, a Baptist minister, is said to have perfomed the ceremony.  It further appears that the couple emigrated to Montgomery County, Virginia, shortly after their marriage.  (Although, perhaps, Thomas moved there as a single man before his marriage, since he was a member of the county militia late in the Revolutionary War.)  Jane Howerton Evans later stated that Thomas Evans volunteered for a three month term of militia service under Captain Trigg shortly after their marriage and traveled to North Carolina where he fought at the shallow ford of the Yadkin River.  There appear to have been at least two engagements at or near this location.  The best known of these occured on or about October 14, 1780, which was prior to the marriage of Jane Howerton and Thomas Evans.  Nevertheless, both Thomas Evans and William Howerton, his brother-in-law, are believed by many to have participated in this battle since, they both appear on a roster of members of Captain Trigg's company of the Montgomery County militia commanded by Major Joseph Cloyd; a military unit known to have been present.4  It also seems that a second skirmish occurred at or near the shallow ford a few days before the Battle of Guilford Courthouse on March 15, 1781 (which was a major battle, considered by many historians to have been the turning point of the Revolutionary War in the South and directly leading to the British surrender at Yorktown).5  This, of course, was after the marriage of Thomas Evans and Jane Howerton and is possibly the engagement she later remembered.  Perhaps, considering all sources, Thomas Evans and William Howerton were present at both of these engagements.  Subsequently, Thomas Evans served a second three month tour, probably again under Captain Trigg, and was at the Great Swamps, the Tan Yard, and Babbs Field.  Finally, he served a third three month tour under Captain Trigg and Lieutenant Wood and was at Petersburg or Williamsburg and the Siege of Yorktown, which ended with the surrender of Lord Cornwallis on October 19, 1781.  Afterward, he apparently did not return home immediately, but continued to serve as a guard of the surrendered British troops.  Montgomery County was formed in 1775 from Fincastle County and originally included a large portion of both Virginia and the future state of West Virginia.  The northern part of Montgomery County along with parts of Botetourt and Augusta Counties was reorganized as Greenbrier County in 1778.  In 1790 Montgomery County was partitioned and the western half was organized as Wythe County.  Montgomery County then remained unchanged until 1806.  The name, Thomas Evans, appeared once in the Land Tax List of 1782 for Montgomery County and twice in the Personal Property Tax List of the same year.  (This second observation lends further support to the previous assertion that there were at least two Thomas Evanses living in approximately the same area of southwestern Virginia at about the same time.)  Moreover, the land assessment was on only a relatively small parcel of fifty acres, which was valued at 10 pounds, assessed 2 shillings, and would seem consistent with a recent arrival of Thomas and Jane Howerton Evans in Montgomery County.  Even so, there is evidence that they may have actually lived in Franklin County during the later 1780's and most of the 1790's.  Indeed, the name of Thomas Evans appeared on tax lists for Franklin County made in 1786, 1788, and 1799.  Concomitantly, Franklin County lies to the east of Montgomery County but, nevertheless, is relatively close by.  Indeed, when Franklin County was formed in 1786 from portions of Bedford and Henry Counties it lay adjacent to Montgomery County.  (This configuration persisted even after the erection of Floyd and Roanoke Counties until a boundary change about 1845 separated the territories of Franklin and Montgomery Counties by a short distance of only two or three miles.)  However, on November 10, 1803, the Virginia Land Office granted Thomas Evans one hundred and seventy-five acres in Montgomery County on the Lost Spring Branch of Clapboard Creek a tributary of the New River and adjoining land of William Godbey.  The parcel had been surveyed on August 21, 1799 and was obtained in exchange for Land Office Treasury Warrants, Nos. 1657 and 22255, issued November 7, 1779, and December 24, 1783, respectively, which may have been given as compensation for Thomas' military service.6  Geographically, Clapboard Creek can now be found in Pulaski County, Virginia, about sixteen miles west southwest of Christiansburg, but before the formation of Pulaski County in 1839 it was within the territory of Montgomery County.  Moreover, there is documentary evidence that in the 1790's Thomas Howerton, father-in-law of Thomas Evans, and his son John Howerton both resided in Montgomery County near the Little River.  This locality lies a few miles east of Clapboard Creek.  In addition, according to Southwest Virginia Kin by Ethel Evans Albert, Thomas Evans was also involved in the following land transactions recorded in Montgomery County: 175 acres purchased by Thomas Evans on August 21, 1790, and sold on October 2, 1804, by Thomas and Jane Evans; 420 acres adjoining survey of Jeremiah Farmer purchased by Thomas Evans on February 2, 1807, and sold on October 16, 1811, to Henry Pate by Thomas and Jane Evans.  The later transaction was witnessed by Drewery Evans.  Taken together, all of this suggests that the Evans family settled in southwestern Virginia and may have at various times lived in either Franklin or Montgomery County; however, exact chronological details remain to be determined.

Within this context, substantial biographical details still remain which portray Thomas Evans as an accomplished frontiersman and pioneer of Virginia, Tennessee, and the Old Northwest Territory.  These are primarily associated with the capture and abduction of James Moore, Jr., by hostile Indians in September of 1784 and the massacre of his father, Captain James Moore, along with his mother and other siblings in Abb's Valley on July 14, 1786.7,8  On the second occasion, Mary (Polly) Moore, sister of James Moore, Jr., and Martha Evans, sister of Thomas Evans, were also taken into captivity.  An expanded and, perhaps, romanticized account, which includes a detailed description of the pursuit of the Indian raiders through the backwoods by Thomas Evans, was published in the book, The Captives of Abb's Valley, in 1854.9  Although there are discrepancies of detail and chronology, the primary events have been affirmed by a number of sources and seem to have been current on the Virginia frontier near the beginning of the nineteenth century.  In all of these accounts, Thomas Evans is credited with traveling to the region of the Great Lakes (specifically, Detroit or Canada) and bringing the captives back home to southwestern Virginia.  However, there remains some confusion as to the exact identity of Thomas Evans.  In the The Captives of Abb's Valley, he is identified with the second Thomas Evans, who as mentioned previously, was born in Augusta County about 1762 and died in Salem, Indiana, in 1829.  In contrast, he is identified by historians of the Howerton family as the husband of Jane Howerton.10  In support of this, Thomas Evans and William Howerton appear to have acted as Indian fighters and "spies" (i.e., scouts) in their later Revolutionary War service in North Carolina.  In addition, Johnston explicitly stated in his history that, "On receiving information at the Davidson-Bailey Fort of the massacre of Captain James Moore and his family, in Abb's Valley, by the Indians, on July 14th, 1786, a messenger was at once dispatched to Major (Joseph) Cloyd, who immediately gathered a body of men and marched to the Valley, reaching there, however, two days after the Indians had departed with their booty and prisoners, and too late to overtake them."11  Major Joseph Cloyd was the commander of the Montgomery County militia with which Thomas Evans and William Howerton were associated during the later part of the Revolutionary War.  Therefore, it seems likely that Thomas Evans would have been present on this occasion and might well have been dispatched to track the marauders as described in The Captives of Abb's Valley.  The "other" Thomas Evans would have been only in his mid-twenties in 1786, which seems, perhaps, too young for him to have developed sufficent skills necessary for such a difficult mission.  An additional point of confusion involves the identification of Ann Crow as the fiancee and later the wife of Thomas Evans.  Indeed, according to marriage records of Montgomery County, it appears that Thomas Evans, Jr., the son of Thomas, Sr., and Jane Howerton Evans, did marry Ann Crowe on September 15, 1808.  Interestingly enough, other researchers indicate that Thomas Evans, son of Robert Evans and Mary Hoge, married Ann Crow on September 15, 1789, in either Montgomery or Botetourt County.  Of course, this was the second Thomas Evans, later of Salem, Indiana.  The coincidence of names and dates is likely not just accidental and is further indicative of the confused state of the sources.  One difficulty lies with The Captives of Abb's Valley itself, in which the author freely admitted that neither he nor other family members were ever able to obtain a satisfactory eyewitness account from his mother, Mary Moore, one of the captives, due to her unwillingness to recall the painful details.  Moreover, the author did not give any details of his sources and one can only suppose that by 1854 they were, at best, the same faulty sixty to seventy year old memories underlying other "imperfect" accounts of the same events to which he also alluded.  Likewise, although Johnston associated Mattie (i.e., Martha) Evans with the Hoge family, he stated that she was the sister of General Robert Morgan Evans, rather than his aunt, which is the generally accepted relationship.  Even the two accounts given by Hamilton contradict since James Moore, Jr., stated in his account that he, his sister, and Martha Evans began their return to Virginia in October of 1789 (which obviously is in conflict with a wedding date in September for Thomas Evans and Ann Crow), but in the other account it is said that, "Martha Evans and Mary (Polly) Moore were ransomed in 1787, by Thomas Evans, brother of Martha."  One possibility is that Thomas Evans, husband of Jane Howerton, tracked the captives immediately after their abduction, but it was the second Thomas Evans that later traveled to the Great Lakes to bring at least some of them home and, consequently, their identities became confused in subsequent accounts.  Obviously, none of this proves anything, but merely indicates that additional facts will be necessary if this issue is ever to be satisfactorily resolved.

The families of Thomas Evans, Drury Evans, and John Ryley all appeared in the 1810 US Census for Montgomery County, Virginia.  Drury (Drewery) Evans can be identified as the oldest son of Thomas and Jane Howerton Evans and John Ryley as the husband of the next-to-oldest daughter, Nancy.  Moreover, in addition to two older adults in the household, which evidently correspond to Thomas and Jane Evans, there were also two young males.  The youngest was probably one of the two youngest sons, Stephen or William.  The older of the two was, perhaps, Thomas, Jr., who was apparently married by this time but, nevertheless, is thought to have resided with his parents for many years afterward.  Also, two younger females and two female children were also present in the household.  These individuals probably cannot be identified with daughters since, they seem to have all been married by 1810.  However, the older one may have been the wife of Thomas, Jr., and the children may have been grandchildren or servants, although it is impossible to know for sure.  A single man, John Evans, was also listed in the 1810 US Census for Montgomery County.  He could have been a son of Thomas and Jane Evans but, this is highly uncertain since, according to the accepted birth year given for their son, John, his age would not be correct. Sometime after October of 1811 and before 1820, Thomas, Sr., and Jane Howerton Evans emigrated to Overton County, Tennessee.  Indeed, the household of Thomas Evans appeared in the 1820 US Census for Overton County.  Resident in the household were a male and a female both older than forty-five years of age.  This was most likely Thomas, Sr., and Jane themselves, and contrary to the opinion of some other researchers, it does not appear that Jane stayed behind in Virginia.  (Indeed, there was a household for Jane Evans listed in the 1820 US Census for Montgomery County, Virginia, which had resident both an older male and older female; however, these must either have been different individuals or Thomas and Jane Evans were somehow enumerated in both places.)  Indeed, for Jane to have stayed behind would have been quite unusual, especially since the names of five of her sons, Nathan, Joshua, John, William, and Stephen Evans, also appeared in the census records for Overton County.  (The stated age ranges for the oldest male in each of the corresponding households agree exactly with the expected age of the appropriate son of Thomas, Sr., and Jane Evans.)  Apparently these households consisted of the five sons and their wives and various minor children.  (Except for the household of Stephen Evans, which contained only a young adult couple and no children; however, Stephen was the youngest son and only about twenty years of age, so presumably he and his wife did not yet have children.)  In addition, three other households listed under the names of  James Crouch, Abner Davidson, and John Rily also appeared in the 1820 US Census for Overton County. (The entry for Abner Davidson appears at the extreme bottom of the page in the population schedule and is nearly illegible, which explains why it has been incorrectly transcribed as "Alenor" by other researchers.)  James Crouch was almost certainly the spouse of  Martha (Patsy) Evans, oldest daughter of Thomas, Sr. and Jane Evans.  Likewise, Abner Davidson was probably the spouse of the third daughter, Anna.  Other researchers place both the Crouch and Davidson households in either Overton or Fentress Counties in the second quarter of the nineteenth century.  A remaining open issue is that Martha (Patsy) Crouch would have been about thirty-nine years old in 1820, but no female of that age was indicated in the James Crouch household.  This could be because she was deceased, however there is strong evidence that she was alive in Fentress County after 1850.  Probably, she was just inadvertently omitted in the tally by the census enumerator.  Moreover, if Rily is an alternative spelling of Ryley, as is likely, then John Rily was probably the spouse of Nancy Evans, the next-to-oldest daugther of Thomas, Sr., and Jane Evans.  Clearly, the stated age ranges are consistent with this identification.  In addition, the household of Thomas Evans included one other adult female older than twenty-six, but younger than forty-five years of age and a male and a female between sixteen and twenty-six years of age.  It would seem that the younger adult male was too young to be a son-in-law since the youngest daughter of Thomas, Sr., and Jane Evans was Priscilla who would have been about thirty years of age in 1820.  If the young adult male was a son of Thomas, Sr., and Jane Evans, he could only have been Thomas, Jr.  In this case, the female of corresponding age was probably his wife and the other adult female might have been a widowed daughter, although this is purely speculation.  Alternatively, the younger adults might instead have been older children of a widowed daughter.  The whereabouts at this time of the oldest son, Drewery, cannot be determined from these records since he was not listed, however, there is additional evidence that he and his family were also in this same area of northern Tennessee.  The remaining three Evans households appearing in the 1820 US Census for Overton County may be unrelated to Thomas Evans, Sr., or perhaps the older William Evans was a brother of Thomas, Sr., and Henry and Joseph were his sons.  Of course, it would not be unusual for close relatives to be resident in the same locality.  (Thomas, Sr., is known to have had at least one brother, Samuel G. Evans, who lived for some time in Roane County, Tennessee.)  Fentress County, Tennessee, was organized from portions of Overton, Morgan, and White Counties in 1823.  Accordingly, in the summer of 1824 civil records indicate that Thomas Evans had made improvements on fifty acres adjoining land owned by Joshua Storie.12  However, in the 1830 US Census for Fentress County, Jane Evans, aged from seventy to seventy-nine years old, appeared as a head of household.  She was evidently Jane Howerton Evans, but an elderly adult male corresponding to Thomas Evans, Sr., did not appear in the same census record.  By all accounts, Thomas Evans, Sr., died in 1832 and, therefore, should still have been alive in 1830.  It is not clear why he was absent from the census record, but with regard to the remoteness of the region, the difficulty of travel, and the standards of literacy at the time, this should not be considered as a very serious discrepancy.  Alternatively, he might have been incompetent or disabled, conditions that tended to be intentionally hidden by families in earlier times.  Moreover, there were also an adult male in his thirties, an adult female in her twenties, and an adolescent female between fifteen and twenty years of age resident in the household of Jane Evans.  These individuals, again, can likely be identified as Thomas, Jr., and other members of his family.  In addition, two sons of of Thomas, Sr., and Jane Evans, Nathan and John Evans, and three sons-in-law, James Crouch, Abner Davidson, and Thomas L. Sabens also appeared as heads of household in the 1830 US Census for Fentress County.  Additional documentation indicates that various Evans and allied families settled on or near Wolf River in the vicinity of Travisville and Forbus, Tennessee, in the early nineteenth century.  As stated previously, this area was in Overton County before 1823, but then became part of Fentress County.  (Much later in 1879, the most northern sections of Overton and Fentress Counties, including Travisville, were reorganized as Pickett County.)  It is generally accepted that Thomas Evans, Sr., died on October 25, 1832, somewhere in this vicinity.  His burial place is unknown, but some researchers speculate that it might be near Travisville.  (It is reported that an "Old Evans Cemetary" exists somewhere in this locality.)

As with the great majority of early pioneers, it can be safely assumed that Thomas Evans, Sr., and his sons and daughters lived close to the land and pursued various forms of agriculture and handicrafts to secure their livelihood.  No doubt this was augmented by the bountiful supply of fish and game which existed on the early American frontier.  Indeed, it was the promise of good land and a better life that in the decades following the Revolutionary War, motivated many pioneers, such as Thomas Evans, Sr., to leave the more settled regions of eastern Virginia and migrate across the Blue Ridge to western Virginia and then through the Cumberland Gap into Tennessee and Kentucky.

Source Notes and Citations:
1. Ethel Evans Albert, Southwest Virginia Kin - Vol. 1, privately published, Kingsport, TN, 1977: pgs. 514-21.
     "THOMAS EVANS, WIFE JANE # W 923, Tennessee 4794.  'Jane Evans, widow of Thomas Evans, dec. who was a pensioner under the act of     and who died on 25 Oct. 1832 at Fentress Co. in the State of Tennessee who was a private Va. Company commanded by Captain Morton in the Va. Line for two years.  Inscribed on the Roll of Tennessee at the rate of $80 per annum to commence on the 4th day of March 1836.  Certificate of Pension issued Dec. 27, 1839 and sent to R. H. Dabney, Morgan Co. (?), Tennessee.'"
     In her book, Ms. Albert has transcribed an affidavit entered on July 16, 1838, in Fentress County by Joseph Upchurch on behalf of the invalid Jane Evans.  This has been compared to the original, which reads as follows:

State of Tennessee, Fentress County, on this the 16th day of July AD 1838 personally appeared before me Joseph Upchurch a Justice of the peace for the said county Jane Evans aged eighty one years from her best information having no record of her age and after being duly sworn according to the law for that purpose doth on her oath make the following Declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the provision of the act of Congress passed the 4th of July 1836.  That she is the widow of Thomas Evans who was a private in the army of the Revolution  that her said deceased husband Thomas Evans entered the service of the United States in Prince Edward County State of Virginia  that she was well acquainted with him at the time of his first entering service  He engaged in the Service in said County She thinks under a Capt John Morton in the Spring of the year one thousand seven hundred & seventy seven, as well as She now recollects and marched off from Prince Edward Courthouse as a Listed Soldier under Continental officers in the Listed Continental line and served for the term of two years  that her brother by the name of James Howerton went with said Thomas Evans, during which time She was still informed that they were at deferent (sic - different) places and States and in the lower parts of Virginia and on the Sea Coast, and that after a lapse of Two years that Thomas Evans her late husband together with her Brother James Howerton returned together to Prince Edward County Virginia and was frequently speaking about the house of her Father and had been frequently there before he went to the army and after returning frequently was speaking  both him and her brother  of events in these late excursions  She recollects that Both of them had written discharges for these tours being performed but what has become of her husband's discharge at this time she cannot tell nor how long it has been lost, not thinking anything about it until lately nor not calculating on it doing her any good, but shortly after their return from the army that her and the said Thomas Evans was married which was on the 24th day of December one thousand seven hundred and eighty in the County of Prince Edward, State of Virginia by John Mackelroy a baptist minister by the publication of Banns; that shortly after her marriage with the said Thomas Evans as aforesaid that he volunteered to serve a three months tour under Capt Trigg whose first name, she believes was Abram, and was commanded by Major Cloid as she understood and went to North Carolina was in Skirmish at or near the Shallow ford of the Yadkin River  and after performing one three months tour and returned home and to Virg(inia)   Again in the next spring season in the latter part of April or foremost of May (he) again volunteered and served she thinks under the same Capt but is not positive  she thinks he was from Bedford County  went to the great Swamps to the Tan yard  Babbs fields and served a three months tour as she always understood and believs  and was discharged in some way knows not whether written or verbal   then he again volunteered in a short time after his return home and went on to Petersburg or Williamsburg and finally went to the Siege of York  She thinks under Capt Wood though she thinks Wood was only Lieutenant when they started from home and was promoted to the office of Capt after they started  She thinks perhaps Trigg was again Capt and was perhaps promoted himself after starting but is not certain that it was precisely arranged in that way but was informed of some changing of officers  She recollects of Several of these County men and of her neighbors returning before her husband who informed her that he was guarding the British Army  that he finally returned having performed the third, three months tours as she then understood and yet believs  all of which she states from her husbands statements to her concerning the deferent marches and officers Battles & and from her own knowledge of his starting and returning
     After the war her and her now Deceased husband removed to Montgomery County State Virginia  remained there for many years thence removed to Overton County Tennessee which is now called Fentress County Tennessee which late County has since been organized  that her and the said Thomas Evans as aforesaid continued to live together as husband and wife in the county of Fentress, State of Tennessee until the 25th day of October 1832 at which time he died at home in Fentress County State of Tennessee   he was then very old and frail as she knows he used to tell her that he was about Ten years older than her and died very suddenly was taken when eating breakfast and appeared to be very much choaked and died in that way  and that she has remained in Fentress County State of Tennessee ever since  has still remained a widow ever since his death as will more fully appear from the proofs hereto annexed
     And that from her extreme old age and consequent loss of memory together with her limited chances of knowing more about dates and officers marches & having no records or documentary evidence of her age or his services neither can she state how many written discharges he ever had  she has none of them now in possession but is quite certain of the date of her marriage with the said Thomas Evans and of the day of his death as a record of his death is in the family nor dose (sic - does) she know of any person certain by whom she can positively prove his Service   She can prove by John Rhodes Clergyman & William Riley  Major Abner Davidson & Major Even F. Frogge all of the county of Fentress & State of Tennessee that her late husband Thomas Evans was spoken of among his acquaintances as having been a Soldier of the Revolution and Reputed and believed to be such, and frequently spoke of his service in the war of the Revolution to his neighbors and friends and was a man that was believed in common conversation and that she has always during their acquaintance been Reputed as the wife of the said Thomas Evans and lived together as such til the death of the said Thomas and that she is and has been during these acquaintance with her called a woman of truth and verasity and that her Statements are entitled to full credit and that from old age and consequently from her bodily infirmity that she is unable to attend court or to go from home  it is most convenient to have her business transacted before Esq Joseph Upchurch at her own house.
     She hereby relinquishes every claim whatsoever of a pension or annuity except the present and declares that her name is not on the pension rolls of any agency of any State or Teritory of the United States.  Sworn to and subscribed the day and date above written  /s/Jane Evans herXmark /s/Joseph Upchurch  a Justice of the Peace

     We  John Rhodes clergyman  William Riley & Abner Davidson & Major Even D Froggeesq all residing in Fentress County State of Tennessee do certify that we are personally acquainted with Jane Evans the present aplicant for a pension and have been for the term of Twenty five years  who has sworn to and subscribed the above declaration and we believe her to be eighty one years of age as she states and an old Lady of undoubted verasity
     And we further certify that we was also personally acquainted with her Deceased husband Thomas Evans in his life time and that the said Jane & Thomas lived together as husband and wife until the death of the said Thomas  and that she has remained his widow ever since his death  that he was a respectable citizen of Fentress County State of Tennessee and was spoken of as having been a Soldier of the Revolution  nor do we believe the same was ever doubted and we concur in that opinion  /s/John Rhodes clergy /s/William Riley  /s/Abner Davidson /s/Even D Frogge
     Sworn to and Subscribed the day and date above written  /s/Joseph Upchurch J. P.

     "Taking into consideration the age of the applicant at the time of the preceding statements, one can accept errors in dates."
     Indeed, other sources imply that Thomas Evans enlisted along with Jane Howerton's brother, James, in 1775 rather than 1777 and would imply that Thomas Evans was not serving in the army between 1778 and 1780.  This is not implausible since during this time period the fortunes of the Continental Army were at a particularly low ebb and, in addition, much of the fighting was in upstate New York and Canada.  It is further believed by historians of the Howerton family that Thomas Evans fought in the Montgomery Couty militia with another of Jane Howerton's brothers, William.  Moreover, during their service with Captain Cloyd they appear to have acted more as irregular scouts or spies rather than conventional soldiers of the line.
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2. Thomas Evans, Jr., made an affidavit in 1835 in Fentress County, Tennessee, stating:  Thomas Evans was his father's name and that his parents were married in Prince Edward County, Virginia, and mentions that he had an elder sister; he (Thomas, Jr.) had an uncle Samuel Evans who now lives in Missouri.

Affidavit made in Fentress County, Tennessee, May 15, 1839, by Nancy Riley states:  she has been personally acquainted with Thomas Evans, dec'd, and wife, Jane Evans, for more than fifty years past and has heard Thomas Evans speak of his Revolutionary service in his lifetime, and has heard him speak of a battle at a sinkhole end of a place near Shallow Ford of the Yadkin river.

Affidavit of Robert Dabney in Morgan County, Tennessee:  was informed by the children of  Mrs. Jane Evans, widow of Thomas Evans, dec'd, that she could prove her marriage and the service of her said husband, by the brother of her husband, namely Samuel Evans, who was also a Revolutionary pensioner in Tennessee, but had lately moved as she understands to the Western country.  I believe to the State of Missouri.  I went to see Samuel Evans and found him about five miles from Philadelphia in Tennessee and near a little town in the edge of Roan County where he said he had been living for some years; that he (Thomas) really served before he married Jane Howerton; took deposition of Samuel Evans before Thomas Stockton, Esquire, of Roan Co, Tenn.

Affidavit of Samuel G. Evans, Roan County, Tennessee, October 26, 1838, who states:  he is personally acquainted with Jane Evans, recollects going and returning with his brother Thomas Evans in the time of the Revolutionary War, both before and after his marriage with Jane Howerton.  Recollects the marriage was celebrated in Prince Edward County, Virginia, December 1780, and was in a skirmish at the Yadkin in North Carolina, 1781, that John Maukleroy solemnized their marriage. (Will Bk. 23, Fentress Co., TN, pgs. 18-9.)
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3. "James Howerton enlisted sometime in December 1775, near Prince Edward Court House, Virginia, in Capt. John Morton's Company, Col. Scott's Regiment (Virginia);  later Col. Adam Stephens' 4th Virginia Regiment.  His unit left Prince Edward County in March 1776 for Suffolk, Virginia.  There and at Portsmouth, Virginia, they skirmished with Lord Dunsmore's forces; then they went to Head of Elk River in Maryland; from there through Philadephia and Newark to New Brunswick, New Jersey, where they joined General George Washington's Army after their retreat from Fort Washington.  He participated in the battles of  Long Ridge, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, and Germantown.  He was in camp at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, during the winter of 1777-1778.  The length of his service was about two years." (Private correspondence with Bryan R. Howerton)
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4. C. W. Crush and F. T. Ingelmire, Montgomery County, Virginia - The First Hundred Years, Iberian Publishing Co., Athens, GA, 1982; also Mary B. Kegley (ed.), Militia of Montgomery County, Virginia 1777-1790, Kegley Books, Wytheville, VA, 1974. (Reprint available 1997)
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5. Mary B. Kegley, Early Adventurers on the Western Waters - Vol. I, Kegley Books, Wytheville, VA, 1980: pg. 371. "A List of Daniel Trigg's Company - 31st March 1781;  Daniel Trigg, Captain; Israel Lorton, Lieut.; Samuel McGehee, Lieut.; Albert Bright, Insign;  Privates:  Blackburn Akers; Cary Allen; Thomas Alley; John Arthur; Samuel Arthur; Jeremiah Barnet; John Bears; Robert Bell; Henry Benjamin; Peter Benner; John Beth, Junr.; John Bingaman; Henry Bishop; Jacob Blackburn; Samuel Cantenberry; John Carlton; Francis Charlton; Wm. Becknal; William Coadesk; Wm. Coadey; Edmund Collinsworth; James Collinsworth; John Collingsworth; Reuben Collinsworth; Mayson Combs; Wm. Combs; Jos. Crompton; William Davis; Benjamin Dispain; John Dispain; Daniel Dobbins; William Drikten; John Duncan; John Eliwick; Archibald Elkins; Falkner Elliott; Jonathan Eswick; Thomas Evans; Barnel Farmer; Thomas Farmer; Wm. Hall; Abram Hankins; John Harrison; Richd. Hawkens; William Hawkins; Richd. Henderson; John Higgans; Abram Hilton; Christopher Horn; William Hornton (Howerton); John Howerton; Thoms Isreal; Wm. Jones; Henry Keggs, Junr.; Thomas Kirk; Michael Mattocks; Bradley Meredith, Junr.; Anthony Pace, Junr.; Adam Pate; John Pate; Thomas Pate; Thomas Pate, Junr.; Ely Peterson; Matthus Peterson; William Pradley; Barnet Prisgrove; Nathan Ratliff; Richd. Ratliff; William Ratliff; Sayton Romine; William Sanren; Henry Skeggs; Jacob Skeggs; Moses Skeggs; Benjamin Staycie; John Staycie; Simon Staycie; Henry Stafford; John Stevens; Michl. Tarter; Archibald Thompson; Edmund Vancil; Herckiah White; Richd. White; John Wilys - 50 for duty."  This roster is dated shortly after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.  Other rosters for Montgomery County militia also apparently exist, which have relatively minor variations in spelling and content from this one.  In addition, the company commander is identified as Abram or Abraham Trigg in other sources; even so, it is generally accepted that Daniel, Abram, or Abraham Trigg are one and the same person.
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6. John Page esquire, governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia:  To all to whom these presents shall come greeting:  Know Ye, that by virtue of two land office treasury warrants viz: one hundred and twenty five acres by number twenty-two thousand two hundred and fifty five issued the twenty fourth of December one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, and fifty acres by number sixteen hundred and fifty seven issued the seventh of November one thousand seven hundred and seventy nine, there is granted by the said Commonwealth unto Thomas Evans, A certain tract or parcel of Land, containing one hundred and seventy-five acres, by survey bearing date, the twenty first day of August, seventeen hundred and ninety nine, being and being in the county of Montgomery on the lost spring branch waters of Clabboard Creek, waters of the New river, and bounded as followeth to wit:  Beginning at two hickories and a pine by a branch corner of Thomas Evans new survey, and with a line north sixteen degrees west, thirty six poles to a white oak and dogwood saplin, north seventy two degrees east, seventy one poles to a pine and white oak, south eighty-eight degrees east one hundred and four poles to two pines, south sixty eight degrees east, fifty one poles to a white oak and pine in a hollow, north eighty degrees east forty poles to two pines, and white oak saplin.  South thirty two degrees east, twenty eight poles to four pines, south sixty degrees east twenty two poles to two pines, south twenty seven degrees east twenty poles to a pine and hickory saplin in a line of William Godbey's, and with it south eighty degrees west one hundred and eighteen poles to three white oaks, thence leaving said line south forty three degrees west fifty four poles to two white oaks in the head of a hollow, south seventy eight degrees west sixty poles to two white oaks, north sixty six degrees west forty two poles to two white oaks and black oak on a ridge, south eighty seven degrees west seventy poles to a white oak and hickory saplin, thence north twenty-two degrees east seventy eight poles crossing said branch to the beginning, with its appurtenances; To have and to hold the said tract or parcel of land with its appurtenances, to the said Thomas Evans and his heirs forever.  In witness whereof the said John Page esquire Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, hath hereunto set his hand, and caused the lesser seal of the said Commonwealth to be affixed at Richmond, on the tenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and three, and of the commonwealth the twenty eighth. /s/John Page.  (Land Office Grants, Bk. 52, pgs. 125-6, Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA, (microfilm: roll - Land Office Grants and Patents #118).)
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7. Emory L. Hamilton, "Indian Atrocities Along the Clinch, Powell and Holston Rivers of Southwest Virginia, 1773-1794", unpublished MSS: pgs. 125-8.  (Rhonda Robertson (tr), Russell County VAGenWeb Archives, 2002.)
     Pendleton, History of Tazewell County, Virginia, page 447, gives this account of the capture of young James Moore, Jr., son of Captain James Moore, of Abbs Valley in Tazewell County, Virginia:
     In September, 1784, James(1), the 18 year old son of Captain James Moore, was captured by Black Wolf, his son, and another Indian.  He was captured when he went to a distant pasture to get a horse to go to mill.  He was carried to Ohio and escaped after 5 years and three years after the massacre of his family.(2)  In 1785 he was so fortunate as to get away from the Indians, and several years after his return he related the following incidents in connection with his captivity.
      "When we returned from hunting in the spring, the old man (Indian) gave me up to Captain Elliott, a trader from Detroit. By my mistress, (Black Wolf's sister) on hearing this, became very angry, threatened Elliott, and got me back.  Sometime in April (1785) there was a dance at a town about two miles from where I resided.  This I attended, in company with the Indian to whom I belonged.  Meeting with a French trader from Detroit, by the name of Batest Ariome (probably a misspelling), who took a fancy to me on account of my resemblance to one of his sons, he bought me for fifty dollars in Indian money.  Before leaving the dance, I met with a Mr. Sherlock, a trader from Kentucky, who had formerly been a prisoner with the same tribe of Indians, who had rescued a lad by the name of Moffett,(3) who had been captured at the head of Clinch, and whose father was an intimate and particular friend of my father.  I requested Mr. Sherlock to write to my father, through Mr. Moffett, informing him of my captivity, and that I had been purchased by a French trader, and was gone to Detroit.  This letter, I have reason to believe, father received, and that it gave him the first information of what had become of me.
     Mr. and Mrs. Ariome were parents to me indeed.  They treated me like one of their own sons.  I ate at their table, and slept with their sons, in a good feather bed.  They always gave me good counsel, and advised me (particularly Mrs. Ariome) not to abandon the idea of returning to my friends.  I worked on the farm with his sons, and occasionally assisted him in his trading expeditions.  We traded at different places, and sometimes went a considerable distance in the country.
     On one of these occasions, four young Indians began to boast of their bravery and among other things, said that one Indian could whip four white men.  This provoked me, an I told them that I could whip all four of them.  They immediately attacked me, but Mr. Ariome, hearing the noise, came and took me away.  This I considered a kind providence; for the Indians are very unskilled in boxing and in this manner of fighting, I could easily have whipped all of them; but when they began to find themselves worsted, I expected them to attack me with clubs, or some other weapon, and if so, had laid my plans to kill them all with a knife, which I had concealed in my belt, mount a fleet horse, which was close at hand, and escape to Detroit.
     It was on one of these trading expeditions, that I first heard of the destruction of my father's family.  This I learned through a Shawnee Indian, with whom I become acquainted when I lived with them, and who was one of the party on that occasion.  I received this information sometime in the summer after it occurred (July 14, 1786).  In the following winter, I learned that my sister Polly had been purchased by a Mr. Stagwell, an American by birth, but unfriendly to the American cause.  He was a man of bad character - an unfeeling wretch - and treated my sister with great unkindness.  At the time he resided a considerable distance from me.  When I heard of my sister, I immediately prepared to go and see her; but as it was then in the dead of winter, and the journey would have been attended with great difficulties, on being told by Mr. Stagwell that he intended to move to the neighborhood where I resided in the following spring, I declined it.  When I heard that Mr. Stagwell had moved, as was contemplated, I immediately went to see her. I found her in the most abject condition, almost naked, being clothed only with a few dirty and tattered rags, exhibiting to my mind, an object of pity indeed.  It is impossible to describe my feelings on the occasion; sorrow and joy were both combined; and I have no doubt the feelings of my sister were similar to my own.  On being advised, I applied to the Commanding Officer at Detroit, informing him of her treatment, with the hope of effecting her release.  I went to Mr. Simon Girty, and to Colonel McKee, the Superintendent of the Indians, who had Mr. Stagwell brought to trial to answer to the complaint against him.  But I failed to procure her release.  It was decided, however, when an opportunity should occur for our returning to our friends, she should be released without remuneration.  This was punctually performed, on application of Mr. Thomas Evans, who had come in search of his sister Martha (Evans), already alluded to, who had been purchased from the Indians by some family in the neighborhood; and was, at that time, with a Mr. Donaldson, a worthy and wealthy English farmer, and working for herself.
     All being now at liberty, we made preparations for our journey to our distant friends, and set out, I think, sometime in the month of October, 1789; it being a little more than five years from the time of my captivity, and a little more than three years after the captivity of my sister and Martha Evans.  A trading boat coming down the lakes, we obtained a passage, for myself and sister, to the Moravian Towns, a distance about two hundred miles, and on the route to Pittsburg.  There, according to appointment, we met with Mr. Evans and his sister, the day after our arrival.  He had, in the meantime procured three horses, and we immediately set out for Pittsburg.  Fortunately for us, a party of friendly Indians, from these towns, were about starting on a hunting excursion, and accompanied us for a considerable distance on our route, which was through a wilderness, and the hunting ground of an unfriendly tribe.  On one of the nights, during our journey, we encamped near a large party of these unfriendly Indians.  The next morning four or five of their warriors, painted red, came into our camp. This much alarmed us.  They made many inquiries, but did not molest us, which might have been the case, if we had not been in company with other Indians.  After this, nothing occurred, worthy of notice, until we reached Pittsburg.  Probably we would have reached Rockbridge (Co., VA) that fall, if Mr. Evans had not, unfortunately, got his shoulder dislocated.  In consequence of this, we remained until the spring with an Uncle of his, in the vicinity of Pittsburg.  Having expended nearly all of his money in traveling, and with the physician, he left his sister and proceeded on with sister Polly and myself, to the house of our Uncle, William McPhaetus, about ten miles southwest of Staunton, near the Middle River.  He received from Uncle Joseph Moore, the administrator of father's estate, compensation for his services, and afterward returned and brought in his sister."

(1) James Moore, Jr., at this time was only 14 years of age. After release he returned to Tazewell Co., VA, where he resided until his death in 1848.
(2) Mr. Pendleton means that James Moore, Jr., returned home 5 years after his capture (1789), and 3 years after his father and family were killed in 1786.
(3) See, Capture of Captain Robert Moffett's son, page 99, this MSS
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8. ibid., pgs. 149-52.
     Captain James Moore moved from Rockbridge Co., VA, to Abbs Valley in Tazewell Co., with his family in 1772.  Prior to the massacre of his family his young son James Moore, Jr., had been taken captive by the Indians in 1784, and had not returned from captivity when the family were so brutally massacred.
     James Moore, was appointed a Lieutenant of Militia for Mongomery Co., on February 26, 1777, and a Captain of Militia on August 4, 1778.  William Davidson says in his Revolutionary War Pension claim filed in Tazewell Co., VA, that James Moore was commander at Davidson's Fort on Bluestone from 1777 until slain by the Indians.  The Montgomery Co. Court, August 23, 1786, "George Peery appointed Captain in place of James Moore, deceased."  The court on August 22, 1786, appointed Joseph Moore as Administrator of the estate of James Moore, deceased, with Andrew Moore, David Sayer, James Simpson and James Coulter, as his securities.  On the same date, and with the same men as security he was also appointed Administrator of the estate of John Simpson, deceased.
     Walter Crockett, County Lieutenant of Montgomery Co., wrote to Governor Patrick Henry, on July 21, 1786, (1) saying: I am sorry to inform your Excellency that on the 14th instant, a party of Indians supposed to be about 40 or 50 in number, came to the house of Captain James Moore on Bluestone, in this county, and killed himself, and his whole family, eleven in number, and carried off his whole stock, which was very valuable. They likewise burned the house and fencing, and left several war clubs and arrows, and to all appurtenances are for continuing hostilities.
     Another letter written by Alexander Barnett, County Lieutenant of Russell Co., VA, to the Governor, dated August 12, 1786, (2) states: The late attempt of the Indians on Bluestone, when destroying Captain Moore's family (which I expect you have been informed of), from the best account I can get, was the Cherokees, and not exceeding 10 or 12 in number. Upon receiving report of it, I issued orders to send out spys, three pair, one for the upper part of the county; one for the center, and one for the lower end. The two in the center, that went from Castlewoods, discovered a trace of moccasin tracks and horses that had sometime before traveled along the top of Cumberland mountain. They reported they followed them about 10 miles, still on the Cumberland mountain. They say the Indians, as they suspect them to be, had about 7 or 8 horses, and 4 or 5 on foot. It is assumed that they are the same that was at Moore's on Bluestone, as it appears that is the number of horses taken from there at that time.
     Pendleton's, History of Tazewell County, page 451, states: In July, 1786, a party of 47 Indians of the Shawnee tribe, again entered Abb's Valley. Captain James Moore kept 5 or 6 loaded guns in his house, which was a strong log building, and hoped, by the assistance of his wife, (Elizabeth) who was very active in loading a gun, together with Simpson, a man who lived with him, to be able to repel the attack of a small party of Indians.  Relying on his prowess, he had not sought refuge in a fort; as many of the settlers had; a fact of which the Indians seem to have been aware, from their cutting out of the tongues of his horses and cattle, and partially skinning them.  It seems they were afraid to attack him openly, and sought rather to drive him to the fort, that they might sack his house.
     On the morning of the attack, Captain Moore, was at a lick bog, a short distance from his house, salting his horses, of which he had many.  William Clark and an Irishman were reaping wheat in front of the house.  Mrs. Moore and the family were engaged int he ordinary business of housework.  A man, named Simpson, was sick upstairs.
     The two men, who were in the field, at work, saw the Indians coming at full speed, down the hill, toward Captain Moore's who had ere this time discovered this and started in a run for the house.  He was, however, shot through the body and died immediately.  Two of his children, William and Rebecca, who were returning from the spring, were killed about the same time.  The Indians had not approached near the house and were met by two fierce dogs, which fought manfully to protect the family of their master.  After a severe contest, the fiercest one was killed, and the other subdued.
     The two men who were reaping, hearing the alarm, and seeing the house surrounded, fled, and alarmed the settlement.  At that time the nearest family was distant six miles.  As soon as the alarm was given, Mrs. Moore and Martha Evans (who was living in the family), barred the door, but this to no avail.  There was no man in the house, at this time except John Simpson, the old Englishman, already alluded to, and he was in the loft, sick and in bed.  There were five or six guns in the house, but having been shot off the evening before, they were empty.  It was intended to have loaded them after breakfast.  Martha Evans took two of them and went upstairs where Simpson was and handing them to him, told him to shoot.  He looked up, but had been shot in the head through a crack, and was then near his end.
     The Indians then proceeded to cut down the door, which they soon effected.  During this time, Martha Evans went to the far end of the house, lifted up a loose plank, and went under the floor, and requested (Mary) Polly Moore (then 8 years old) who had the youngest child, called Margaret, in her arms, (which was crying), to set the child down, and come under.  Polly looked at the child, clasped it to her breast, and determined to share its fate.  The Indians having broken into the house, took Mrs. Moore and her children, viz: John, Jane, Polly and Peggy (Margaret) prisoners, and having taken everything that suited them, they set it and other buildings on fire, and went away.
     Martha Evans remained under the floor a short time, and then came out and hid herself under a log that lay across a branch, not far from the house.  The Indians, having tarried a short time, with a view of catching horses, one of them walked across this log, sat down on the end of it, and began to fix his gun lock.  Miss Evans, supposing that she was discovered, and that he was preparing to shoot her, came out and gave up.  At this he seemed much pleased.  They then set out for their towns.
     Perceiving that John Moore was a boy weak in body and mind, and unable to travel, they killed him the first day.  The baby they took two or three days, but it being fretful, on account of a wound it had received, they dashed its brains out against a tree.  They then moved on with haste to their towns.  For sometime, it was usual to tie, very securely, each of the prisoners at night, and for a warrior to lie beside each of them, with tomahawk in hand, so that in case of pursuit, the prisoners might be speedily dispatched.
     Shortly after they reached the towns, Mrs. Moore and her daughter Jane, about 16 years old, were put to death, being burned and tortured at the stake.  This lasted sometime, during which time she manifested the utmost Christian fortitude, and bore it without a murmur, at intervals conversing with her daughter Polly, and Martha Evans, and expressing great anxiety for the moment to arrive when her soul should wing its way to the bosom of the Saviour.  At length an old squaw, more humane than the rest, dispatched her with a tomahawk.
     Polly Moore and Martha Evans eventually reached home, as described, in the narrative of James Moore.
     It is said that Mrs. Moore had her body stuck full of light wood splinters which were fired, and she was thus tortured three days, before she died.
     James Moore's first home was near Natural Bridge in Rockingham Co. (VA).  His wife was Elizabeth Poage, and his eldest sister married Major Alexander Stuart of Rockbridge.  His cousin, Samuel Walker visited Southwest Virginia, and from his glowing reports, Captain Moore, moved with his family to Abbs Valley.
     Martha Evans and Mary (Polly) Moore were ransomed in 1787, by Thomas Evans, brother of Martha.  Mary Moore married Rev. Samuel Brown of Rockbridge Co.
(1) Virginia State Papers, Vol. IV, page 159.
(2) Virginia State Papers, Vol. IV, page 163.
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9. A. W. Mitchell, Captives of Abb's Valley, Presbyterian Board of Publication, Philadelphia, 1854.  Although this book was originally copyrighted by A. W. Mitchell, actual authorship is attributed to James Moore Brown, son of Mary Moore, captive.  There have been a number of more recent reprintings of this work by various historical societies and religious publishers.  Some of these include materials not present in the original edition.  (The original edition can be viewed electronically at
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10. Bryan R. Howerton, "Howertons on the Virginia Frontier", Howerton Heritage Newsletter, Spring 2000. (Wally Howerton (ed),, 2000.)
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11. David E. Johnston,  A History of Middle New River Settlements and Contiguous Territories, Standard PTG. & Pub. Co., Huntington, WV, 1906, pass.  (Larry Kinyon (tr), Kinyon Digital Library,, 2000.)
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12. "July 3, 1824 - Thomas Evans is shown as having made improvements on a 50 acre entry on land adjoining that of Joshua Storie's."  (Land Entry Bk. A, Fentress Co., TN, No. 52. - Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville, TN. (microfilm: roll - Fentress Co. #19)  (extracted by Albert R. Hogue, unpublished MSS. cited in Anonymous, History of Fentress County, Tennessee, Fentress County Historical Society, Jamestown, TN, 1987: pg. 9. (copyright: Curtis Media Corp.)))
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Additional Citations:

13. 1810 US Census Population Schedule for Montgomery County, Virginia, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 623, (microfilm: roll M252_70; img. 67).

14. 1820 US Census Population Schedule for Montgomery County, Virginia, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 173, (microfilm: roll M33_130; img. 334).

15. 1820 US Census Population Schedule for Overton County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 258, (microfilm: roll M33_122; img. 217).

16. 1830 US Census Population Schedule for Fentress County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 13, (microfilm: roll M19_176; img. 27).

17. Montgomery County Personal Property Tax List of 1782, Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA,  (microfilm: roll - Personal Property Tax Records #241)(Jeffrey Weaver (tr), New River Notes,, 2015.)

18. Montgomery County Land Tax List of 1782, Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA,  (microfilm: roll - Land Tax Records #197). (Jeffrey Weaver (tr), New River Notes,, 2015.)

19. Franklin County Personal Property Tax List of 1786,  Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA, (microfilm: roll - Personal Property Tax Records #120).  (Jeffrey Weaver (tr), New River Notes,, 2015.)

20. Franklin County Personal Property Tax List of 1788,  Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA, (microfilm: roll - Personal Property Tax Records #120).  (Stephen Binns (tr), Franklin County VAGenWeb Archives, 2002.)

21. Franklin County Personal Property Tax List of 1799,  Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA, (microfilm: roll - Personal Property Tax Records #120).  (Stephen Binns (tr), Franklin County VAGenWeb Archives, 2003.)

22. Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files, National Archives, Washington DC:  Thomas Evans (Jane) W923, (microfilm: roll M805_309; imgs. 238-44).

23. Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, Revolutionary War Records - Vol. 1, Virginia, privately published, Washington, DC, 1936.  (Reprint available from Genealogical Publishing Co., 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD, 21202-3897)

24. Deed Bk. D, Montgomery Co., VA, pg. 408, Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA,  (microfilm: roll - City and County Records #3).

25. Deed Bk. F, Montgomery Co., VA, pg. 157, Library of Virginia, Richmond, VA,  (microfilm: roll - City and County Records #4).

26. Joseph A. Waddell, Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, C. W. Russell Pub., Staunton, VA, 1902: pgs. 328-9.

27. Anne Eliza Woods Sampson, Kith and Kin, The William Byrd Press, Inc., Richmond, VA, 1922: pgs. 140-3.

28. Larry M. Evans, "Notes by Larry M. Evans", Springfield, IL, May 7, 1979, unpublished.  (non-circulating copy available in the Casey County Public Library, Liberty, KY)

29. Robert L. Evans, "Our Family's History", November 9, 2001, unpublished.

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