Nancy Evans
  b: 1783 - Montgomery Co., VA - nra: 1860

Father: Thomas Evans, Sr.
Mother: Jane Howerton

Spouse: John Riley - b: 28/Mar/1761 - Co. Warwickshire, England
   d: 29/Jun/1837 - TN - bur: Frogge's Chapel Cem., Fentress Co.
  m: 25/Jan/1800 - Montgomery Co., VA

Child-1: William - b: ~1801 - Montgomery Co., VA - nra: 1850
                           m: Mary (Polly) *****
          2: Thomas S. - b: 26/Nov/1803 - Montgomery Co., VA
                                 d: 11/Aug/1878 - Clinton Co., KY - bur: Albany Cem.
                                m: Sarah Davidson - m: Ruth Catherine Boring
          3: John Floyd - b: ~1812 - TN
                                  d: 22/Mar/1889 - Fentress Co., TN - bur: Frogge's Ch. Cem.
                                 m: Elizabeth Pile

Biographical Details:

Although the birth order of the children of Thomas and Jane Howerton Evans is not entirely certain, their daughter, Nancy, was probably born in 1783 in Montgomery County, Virginia.  This presumption is supported by corresponding census records as well as plausible chronology.  Accordingly, civil records of Montgomery County reveal that Nancy Evans married John Ryley on January 25, 1800.  She would have been about seventeen years old at that time.  (Ryley, Riley, or Rily commonly appear in early records as variant spellings of the same surname, now almost uniformly rendered as "Riley".)  In contrast, John was considerably older than Nancy having been born in England in 1761, therefore, it is possible that she was his second wife, although there is no known documentary evidence of this.  Concomitantly, a subsequent pension declaration made in March of 1834 revealed that John had been injured in the Revolutionary War and was, perhaps, substantially disabled.1  Moreover, he seems to have been literate since it was reported that he possessed books and it appears that he signed his name to his declaration, rather than just simply making "his mark".  It is clear from the population schedule of the 1810 census that the household of John Ryley (i.e., Riley) was resident in Montgomery County and at that time included two male children of less than ten years of age, a male adolescent (or young adult) of between sixteen and twenty-five years, an older adult male of above age forty-five, and an adult female between sixteen and twenty-five years old.  In addition, there may have been a male of between twenty-six and forty-four years of age also indicated in the population schedule; however, upon close examination the corresponding marking appears anomolous and may have been made either inadvertantly or as a mistake that was later crossed out.  In any case, it would seem probable that at least four of the indicated individuals should be identified as John and Nancy Evans Riley and their two sons, William and Thomas.  Any remaining adult males remain unidentified, but were likely relatives.  Of course, Nancy was probably a year or two older than twenty-five; however, a certain carelessness regarding ages was not unusual in early American society, particularly, in more unsettled regions and, thus, this should not be considered as a serious discrepancy.  In any case, the household of Nancy's father, Thomas Evans, appeared on the immediately succeeding line of the population schedule, which is a good indication that they were living in close proximity to the Riley family.  Within this context, it is known that in the early 1800's, Thomas Evans was granted one hundred and seventy-five acres near Clapboard Creek on "waters of the New River", which would seem to correspond to a location in Montgomery (later Pulaski) County, Virginia, about seven or eight miles southwest of the present city of Radford.  Furthermore, in a deposition made in 1852, Thomas Riley, a son of John and Nancy Evans Riley, stated that he was born at Englishs ferry on New river Montgomery County Virginia.2  Concomitantly, published histories indicate that among other names, in the early nineteenth century Radford (or more precisely, one of its antecedents) was known as English Ferry.3  Therefore, it would seem almost certain that this was the locality indicated by Thomas' statement, which is, thus, in reasonably close agreement with known details of the history of the extended Evans family.  Accordingly, it seems that John and Nancy Riley and their sons moved to Overton (later Fentress) County, Tennessee, early in the second decade of the nineteenth century along with her parents and other members of the family.  Consequently, the household of John Rily (i.e., Riley) was listed in the population schedule of the 1820 US Census for Overton County and consisted of a male child less than ten years old, a young male between the ages of ten and sixteen, an adolescent male between sixteen and eighteen, a male between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five, an adult male older that forty-five years, and an adult female between twenty-six and forty-five years of age.  Obviously, the older adult couple can be identified with reasonable confidence as John and Nancy themselves.  In addition, Nancy stated in later life that she had only three children, all sons and, therefore, it would seem evident that they should be identified with three of the four younger individuals; however, the remaining individual cannot be identified.4  As with other early immigrants to Fentress County, land records indicate that the Riley family settled in the valley of the Wolf River.5  By 1830, John and Nancy Riley, aged sixty to seventy and forty to fifty years, respectively, seem to have been living with the family of their son, Thomas, who had apparently married by this time.  In addition, the names of both Thomas and John Riley, Sr., appeared in the 1833 Tax List for Fentress County.

It was reported by his widow that John Riley died on June 29, 1837.  Additionally, his son, Thomas, later reported that his father's death occurred shortly before he received an official pension certificate although, it seems to have already been issued.  Accordingly, John had applied for benefits as a veteran of the Revolutionary War pursuant to an Act of Congress of June 7, 1832, which authorized full pay for life to all officers and enlisted men who had served at least two years, and partial pay for all officers and enlisted men who had served at least six months. Widows and children were allowed to receive payments due the pensioner that had not been paid before his death.  Unfortunately, because of these circumstances it seems that his surviving wife was, perhaps, not able to collect arrears of his pension.  In any case, Nancy Riley made an affidavit for a widow's benefit on December 30, 1840, at which time she was still apparently living with her son, Thomas, and his family.  She made an additional statement the following April amending and expanding her previous one.  Unaccountably, in both of these declarations Nancy indicated that she had married in 1792 and that her oldest son, William, had been born in 1793.  These assertions are in conflict with other documentary evidence as well as known chronological details.  In addition, she further stated that the marriage had been performed by a Baptist minister, Rev. Dillenham, at the home of Thomas Evans in Franklin County, Virginia, a few miles from Winchester.  Indeed, in 1792 Franklin County adjoined Montgomery County to the east and, hence, this location is plausible and there is no reason to doubt the name of the minister.  However, the town of Winchester lies far to the north in Frederick County, although this is the location where John Riley first enlisted in Continental service.  The only plausible explanation for these errors is that Nancy was attempting to satisfy the provisions of an act of Congress of July 7, 1838, entitled "An Act granting half pay and pensions to certain Widows", which for eligibility required her marriage to John Riley to have occurred prior to January 1, 1794.  It does not appear that she was granted a pension as a result of these declarations.  Subsequently, Congress relaxed eligibility requirements for widows of Revolutionary War veterans by acts of July 29, 1848, and February 3, 1853.  Accordingly, Nancy Riley was granted a widow's pension on July 12, 1853, in the amount of seventy dollars per year retroactive to March 4, 1848.  Moreover, in 1855, again, on the basis of her husband's military service, she also applied to receive a grant of "bounty land".  Of course, Nancy's persistence in pursuit of benefits should be understood within the context of the place and time.  Undoubtedly, her life was quite difficult and any monetary compensation would have provided considerable relief for her as well as for her family.  Census records indicate that Nancy Evans Riley remained resident within the household of her son probably for the remainder of her life.  It seems that she must have died in the 1860's, very likely  in Fentress County, although her son, Thomas, and his family later moved to Clinton County, Kentucky, which lies just to the north across the Tennessee-Kentucky boundary and it is possible that she died there.  (Indeed, before Pickett County was organized in 1879, Fentress and Clinton Counties were adjacent along the boundary between Tennessee and Kentucky.)  Even so, her death does not seem to have been reported to the Pension Agency until 1883 and, moreover, her pension appears to have been paid through June of 1881.  It is possible that this is an indication that she survived until after 1880; however, there is no support for this in census records and it is, perhaps, more likely that this report was due to administrative error.6

Source Notes and Citations:
1a. Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files, National Archives, Washington DC:  John Riley W5703, (microfilm: roll M805_691; imgs. 269-86).

Declaration   In order to obtain the benefit of the Act of Congress of the 7th of June 1832.
     State of Tennessee  Fentress County}   On this twenty Eighth day of October in the year of our lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty four personally appeared before the court of pleas and quarter Sessions of this county and State aforesaid John Riley a resident of said county and state, aged seventy three years on the 28th day of March 1834 (he having been born in Warwickshire England on the 28th day of March 1761 as he is informed & believes)  Who being first duly sworn according to law doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefits of the provision made by the act of Congress passed June 7th 1832.  That he enlisted in the army of the United Sates for during the war, in the same month and year that General Burgoine was taken, which he believes to have been about the middle (say the 17th) of October 1777.  Then he believes he can safely say he entered the army of the United States on the 15th day of October 1777 on which day he enlisted as a private soldier for during the war under Captain Thompson (who was a few weeks thereafter accidentally killed when he was placed under Captain Parker in Col Anthony Waynes regiment.  he enlisted in the county of Frederick--in the state of Virginia - About three months after he enlisted he was appointed assistant Commissary under one James Reynolds in which capacity he served eighteen months or until he was disabled by wounding at the Battle of Stoney Point,  which he remembers to have been about the 15th day of July 1779.  he was wounded in the following manner on that day  he was assisting the Artillery Company to cannonade the fort  his business was to handle Cannon Balls so he was coming up with his hands full  behind a cannon when she fired, at which fire the carriage recoiled passing over his right foot literally mashing the fore part of the foot, the wound being so painful he raised his foot up and set it on the carriage when immediately (as though the fates were against him) a musket Ball from the British army entered he lower part of the Calf part of his leg & came out in the front side another two or three inches of the Knee joint ranging upward from where it entered.  contributing greatly to his disability for further service to his country.  In this wounded situation he remained under  the fort was made to surrender when he was taken to Doctor Ingles who dressed his wounds  at this period his service as assistant Commisary ended being unable from this time out to render his country further aid  he was confined with his wounds at this place Stoney Point say four months (at least)  after he got well he was discharged from the Army and released from further Servitude (sic - service) on account of his disability occasioned from the wound received as aforesaid  he was discharged about the first of December 1779  he has no recollection of whether he ever received a written discharge or not nor does he remember the officer by whom he was discharged.  While he was in the service he knew many of the officers among who were the following as well as he can now recall it--Capt Thompson  Captn Parker  Captn Butler  Captn Morten  Captain James Barnett  Captn Alexander Brackenridge  Captn Lindsey.  Maj Houston  Maj Hanes  Maj Tayler, Col Wayne  Col Batler  Col Sykes, Col Buford  Col Gibson  Col Chas Lewis  Dr Thomas Christie  Dr Ingles, Genl Green  Genl Schyler  Genl Sumpter,  Genl Arnold & Genl Mughlenberg.  he knew many of these officers from having had to fill their requisitions while acting as assistant Commissary - when he enlisted he was marched to Ticonderoga from thence to Genl Schylers from thence to several other places before he was marched to Stoney Point  he served under but one enlistment, he is to this day in a great degree a cripple from the wounds received as aforesaid in the revolutionary army he hereby relinquishes any claim whatever to a pension or an annuity except the present.  and he declares that his name is not on the Pension Roll of any Agency in any state or territory
Sworn to and subscribed the day and year aforesaid  /s/John Riley

John H Richardson Clerk  And the said Court do hereby declare their opinion that the above named applicant was a revolutionary soldier and served as he states  /s/John Culver  /s/Joshua Owens  /s/Jn. B. Rodgers

I John H Richardson clerk of the court of Pleas and quarter Sessions for the County of Fentress in the State of Tennessee being a court of Record, do hereby certify that the foregoing contains the original proceeding of the said court in the matter of the application of John Riley for a pension
     In Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal of office, at office this 28, day of October 1834  /s/John H Richardson Clerk

b. (Appearing along the side of the page: No. 7 7656  Nancy Riley of John  TennesseeState of Tennessee  Fentress County} SS
     On this 30th day of December 1840--before me Joseph Upchurch an acting Justice of the Peace for said county personally appeared Nancy Riley a resident of the state of Tennessee and county of Fentress aged Sixty seven years   who being first duly sworn according to law doth on her oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the provision made by the act of Congress passed July 7th 1838 entitled an act granting half pay and pensions to certain widows.
     That she is the widow of John Riley who was a private in the war of the Revolution and to whom a certificate of Pension was Granted in the year 1837 at the rate of seventy dollars per year (pursuant to) the act of Congress passed 9th June 1832 and sent to the care of J L Kennedy at Morgan C H (i.e., Morgan County Court House) Tennessee
     She further declares that she was married to the said John Riley on the seventeenth day of December in the year seventeen hundred and ninety two
     That her husband the aforesaid John Riley died on the Twenty ninth day of June one thousand eight hundred and thirty seven  That she was not married to him prior to his leaving the service but the marriage took place previous to the first of January seventeen hundred and ninety four viz. at the time above stated}  /s/Nancy herXmark Riley
Sworn to and subscribed one the day and year above written before me  /s/Joseph Upchurch  Justice of the Peace

c. State of Tennessee  Fentress County} Sct
     Be it known that on the 26th day of April 1841 before me Joseph Upchurch and (sic - an) acting Justice of the peace in and for the county aforesaid personally appeared Nancy Riley and after being first duly sworn according to law for that purpose on her said Oath made the following statements by way of amendment and explanation to a former Declaration by her made in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress of the 7th July 1838  That no family records of the Marriage or of the birth of the children dose (sic - does) exist but that from the best recollection of herself and having taken particular pains to inform herself on that subject  that in less than Twelve months after the marriage that took place with herself & John Riley deceased which took place at the time before stated and in the County of Franklin State of Virginia in about Seven miles of Winchester at the house of Thomas Evans deceased the rights of matrimony was celebrated by a baptist minister whose name was Dillenham  first name she has forgotten if she ever was informed,  That her son viz the first child William Riley was born and that from his recollection of the information given him by his said Father John Riley that he was born the 22nd day of October seventeen hundred and ninety three as will more fully appear by a reference to the proof hereto annexed.  that no record of the marriage or the birth of any of their children can be found, that diligent serch (sic - search) has been made amongst the books and papers which did belong to John Riley deceased in his life time, but no memorandum of the marriage  Births  deaths or any such thing can be found  that all exertion has been made by her to procure some Documentary as record proof of the marriage of herself and John Riley deceased but can not procure any such proof  that she had only three children all sons and in married (i.e., she is declaring that her children were legitimate) but that no memorandum of was ever taken as she knows of in relation to any of the family affairs  Births or marriages and that the death of the said John Riley deceased was proven by a reference to the proof made in the County Court Clerks office in order for the arrears of Pension due the said John Riley to the day of his Death to be paid her which record was found according to her own recollection and she is fully satisfyed that she has a compleat recollection as to the date of the marriage of herself and the said John Riley deceased which was at the time before stated  /s/Nancy herXmark Riley
Sworn to and subscribed the day and date before me written /s/Joseph Upchurch  Justice of the Peace

     There is some evidence that Thomas and Jane Howerton Evans may have lived in Franklin County, Virginia, in the 1790's, although this remains to be definitively proven.  Even so, it does not seem possible that the marriage of Nancy Evans and John Riley could have taken place in 1792 since strong chronological evidence implies that she would have been only about ten years old at that time.  This would not have been allowed, even in a society that commonly condoned marriages between young teenage girls and older men.  Moreover, civil records of Montgomery County clearly confirm the marriage of Nancy Evans and John Riley in January of 1800.  Likewise, William Riley could not have been born in 1793, but was almost certainly born about 1801 as affirmed by all subsequent census records.
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2a. ibid.
State of Kentucky County of Clinton} Sct
     Be it remembered that on this the 28th day of August 1852, personally appeared before the undersigned Justice of the Peace within and for said County duly Commissioned and qualified, Thomas Riley, aged 57 years, a resident of Fentress County, Tennessee, who being duly sworn says:  that he is the son of Nancy Riley, now an applicant for a Pension as the widow of John Riley, to whom a Pension Certificate issued which failed to reach him until within a few days after his death.  That said applicant lived before his fathers death and ever since that time with him, and is now living with him.
     That he was present at the time she made her Declaration for a Pension, which was done at his house, she being at the time unable to go to the Court house, That on that occasion she stated that she was married in Montgomery County Virginia: That he has frequently heard her say she was married in Montgomery County, and that she never lived in any other Counties in her life except Montgomery County, Virginia and Fentress County Tennessee, the County in which she now lives.  That he well recollects when his father moved from his residence (where this deponent was born), at Englishs ferry on New river  Montgomery County Virginia to Fentress County Tennessee where he died about fifteen years ago.  He states that his mother is still living and still a widow.
     He states that he was present when the deposition of Martha Crouch was taken to prove the marriage, and that she stated in her deposition that the marriage took place in Montgomery County Virginia, and made no other statement of her having been married anywhere else.  He further states that the Deposition of Martha Crouch was also taken at his house.  /s/Thomas hisXmark Riley
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of August 1852 and I further certify that I believe the statements of the affiant entitled to full credit.  /s/W. F. Davis  J. P. C C

b. State of Tennessee  Fentress County} Sct
     On the 22nd day of March 1855 before me Archibald Dishman a Justice of the Peace within and for said County, personally appeared Nancy Riley, aged 73 years, to me ever known, a resident citizen of said County & State, & made oath in due form of law, that she is the identical woman who is the widow of John Riley decd who was a private in the Revolutionary War: That as his widow she is now in possession of an Original Certificate of which the following is a true Copy, viz
     Department of the Interior  Widows Pension
I certify that in conformity with the Act of July 29, 1848  Nancy Riley widow of John Riley who was a private in the Revolutionary war, is inscribed on the pension list at the rate of Seventy dollars and ---- cents per annum, commencing on the 4th of March 1848 and continuing for life, unless she should again marry; in which case the pension is not payable after the time of such marriage.
     Given at the Department of the Interior, the 12th day of July One thousand eight hundred and fifty three  Examined and Countersigned, James Campbell Acting Secretary of the Interior
S. P. Waldo Commissioner of Pensions
     That upon this Certificate she draws her pension at the Agency in Nashville Tennessee.
     She states that she has never married since the death of her husband, said John Riley, but remains a widow.  She states that she has never received any Bounty Land for his services or in any other way.
     She makes this Declaration for the purpose of obtaining the bounty land to which she is entitled under the act approved March 1855.
     She appoints Long, Maxey & Wright of Albany, Ky her attorneys and directs her warrant to be enclosed to them when granted.  /s/Nancy herXmark Riley
Witnesses   /s/O. H. Webb  /s/Henry Gatewood
Sworn to and subscribed by Nancy Riley before me date above written, and I certify that I now have her Certificate of Pensions before me, and the copy in this Declaration is a true copy thereof, and further that she is a resident citizen of said County, and that I believe her statements to be correct, and that she is of the age stated.  /s/Archibald Dishman J. P.
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3. "Radford originated as a railroad town in 1856 and has been known as Lovely Mount, English Ferry, Ingles's Ferry, Central Depot, and lastly, Central City.  In 1887 Radford was incorporated as a town and was incorporated as a city in 1892.  The city was named Radford to honor John Blair RADFORD, a prominent citizen of the city.  The Radford State Teachers College was established there in 1913.  Prior to being chartered as an independent city in 1892 the Radford area records were kept at the courthouse for Montgomery County located in Christiansburg, Virginia."
     It would seem that all of the names listed above were current at various times from the late eighteenth to late nineteenth century.  Moreover, modern maps still indicate the village of New River (which was frequently associated with English Ferry) lying at the edge of Pulaski County directly opposite of Radford.  Within this context, the site of the ferry would seem to correspond to the railroad bridge which crosses the river precisely at this location.  Furthermore, accounts made by early travelers of the region asserted that Fort Chiswell, an important early frontier outpost, lay about thirty miles from English Ferry.  Indeed, although nothing historically significant remains at the site, it is known that Fort Chiswell lay about five miles east of the present town of Wytheville, which, just as indicated would have been about thirty miles upriver from English Ferry.  (Tami Ramsey and Rhonda Smith (tr), Radford City VAGenWeb Archives,, 2004.  (cf., Library of Virginia,, 2006.))
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4. Only two sons, William and Thomas, were mentioned by name in Nancy Riley's pension declarations.  Ann Lentz and others believe that the third son was John Floyd Riley.  She states that he was closely associated in civil records with his putative brother, Thomas, (and, hence, John and Nancy Riley themselves since in later life they appear to have lived with Thomas and his family).  Ms. Lentz further stated that, "He (John Floyd) even bought the Groom place located next to Thomas' estate from widow Nellie Groom."  Within this context, in the population schedule of the 1850 US Census for Fentress County, at least six heads of families having the surname "Riley" can be found, viz.: William, age forty-nine; Thomas, age forty-five; Floyd, age thirty-seven; Washington, age twenty-nine; Ransom, age twenty-six; and Elex (Alex or Alexander), age twenty-five.  Obviously, Thomas and William Riley can be identified immediately as the two older sons of John and Nancy Evans Riley and, indeed, Floyd, would seem a plausible candidate for the third son.  Furthermore, the population schedule indicated that he was born in Tennessee about 1812, which closely accords with what is known of the migration of the extended Evans family from Virginia.  The remaining three individuals cannot be definitively identified.  Of more significance, in the population schedule of the 1880 census "Floid Rily" (i.e., John Floyd Riley) stated that his father had been born in England and his mother in Virginia.  This strongly supports the presumption that he was almost certainly the son of John and Nancy Evans Riley.  Of the three sons of John and Nancy Evans Riley, it is believed that William died in Fentress County in the early 1850's, Thomas' fist wife died in the 1860's after which he remarried and moved to Clinton County, Kentucky, where he seems to have died in the 1870's, and John Floyd survived in Fentress County until 1889.  (unpublished notes)
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5. "July 2, 1824 - John Riley lived on an entry on Wolf River which adjoined Mucklerath and William Travis' land."  (Land Entry Bk. A, Fentress Co., TN, No. 41. - Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville, TN. (microfilm: roll - Fentress Co. #19)  (extracted by Albert R. Hogue, unpublished MSS. cited in Anonymous, History of Fentress County, Tennessee, Fentress County Historical Society, Jamestown, TN, 1987: pg. 9. (copyright: Curtis Media Corp.)))
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6. op. cit. (Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files: John Riley W5703); Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files, National Archives, Washington DC:  John Riley W7137, (microfilm: roll M805_682; imgs. 808-18).

"3-403] (Pensioner Dropped)  U. S. Pension Agency   Columbus OFeby 1 1883
Hon. Commissioner of Pensions
     I hereby report that the name of Nancy Riley  widow of John  act Feby 3 "53, who was a pensioner on the rolls of this Agency under Certificate No ---, and who was last paid at $96 per annum to June 4, 1881 has been dropped because of reported death.
     Very respectfully  /s/A. T. Wikoff Pension Agent C   Every name dropped to be reported at once"

The preceding form letter was included in the pension file of John and Nancy Riley of Fentress County, Tennessee.  However, there are serious inconsistencies evident, not the least of which is that the letter originated in Columbus, Ohio, rather than Nashville.  In addition, the stated benefit amount was ninety-six dollars per year, rather than seventy.  Within this context, pension records reveal the existence of another and unrelated John and Nancy Riley, who did indeed live in Butler County, Ohio.  He was reportedly seventy-six years old in 1839, i.e., born about 1763, and she was aged sixty-five in 1855, i.e., born about 1790.  They had married in 1809 and, clearly, like their counterparts in Tennessee, were widely separated in age.  Moreover, both John Rileys had enlisted in Virginia, thus, the coincidence of names, approximate ages, and locations strongly suggests the likelihood of confusion between these individuals.  Indeed, Nancy Riley of Butler County, Ohio, was listed on the pension roll at a rate of ninety-six dollars.  Therefore, it would seem that this document has been filed incorrectly and does not in fact refer to Nancy Evans Riley of Fentress County.
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Additional Citations:

7. 1810 US Census Population Schedule for Montgomery County, Virginia, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 623, (microfilm: roll M252_70; img. 67).

8. 1820 US Census Population Schedule for Overton County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 258, (microfilm: roll M33_122; img. 217).

9. 1830 US Census Population Schedule for Fentress County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 13, (microfilm: roll M19_176; img. 27).

10. 1840 US Census Population Schedule for Fentress County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 14, (microfilm roll M704_523; img. 27).

11. 1850 US Census Population Schedule for Fentress County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 419B, (microfilm: roll M432_877; img. 494).

12. 1860 US Census Population Schedule for Fentress County, Tennessee, National Archives, Washington DC:  pg. 40A, (microfilm: roll M653_1249; img. 82).

13. Fentress County Tax List of 1833, Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville, TN.  (Bruce York (tr), Fentress County TNGenWeb Archives, 2000.)


14. Albany Cemetery, Clinton County, Kentucky (, continuously updated).

15. Anonymous, "Provisions of Pension Laws" ,, 2005.

16. James Garrett, private correspondence.

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