Fall 2004

MWF 12:45-1:50


Instructor : Dr. Virginia L. Butler

Office : 141 L, CRAMER HALL

Phone : 725-3303; e-mail: butlerv@pdx.edu

Office hours : Tue,Wed 2:00-3:00 (or by appointment)

Course Description : This course will explore various questions and issues related to the exploration, colonization and subsequent cultural developments on islands in the South Pacific. When and how did people colonize Australia and New Guinea? What navigational and other maritime skills were required for people to colonize remote islands of the South Pacific? What approaches to subsistence and land use did people use on these islands and how variable were these? How variable are the environments on Oceania’s islands and how does this affect cultural developments across the region? Were prehistoric people “living in harmony” with nature or did they significantly modify the islands they came to occupy? How did cultural practices and life ways change after people settled? What can account for the cultural complexity attained on some island groups (like Hawai’i), indicated by ethnographic records and the impressive stone monuments and architecture? Why did these cultural systems sometimes fail?

The format of the course will primarily be lecture, but there will be time for discussion and debate related to the topics we cover. I will also be showing slides and films to introduce you to the various topics. Because much of the material on the exams is based on materials we cover in class, I strongly recommend you regularly attend class; borrow notes from another student if you have to miss class. I assume that people taking the course have had a previous archaeology course (Anth 350; Anth 102; Soph Inq: Archaeology). If you have not had a previous archaeology course and still want to take this one, you will have to do some background reading in archaeology (I can recommend a book or two) to keep up.

Required Text (PSU Bookstore)

Kirch, Patrick V.

2000 On the Road of the Winds. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Course Packet : (Clean Copy)

Course readings include 1 to 3 journal articles or book chapters assigned each week (see attached list). These required readings have been assembled into a reader and are available at CLEAN COPY

Course Requirements :

-1 Map quiz (15 points)

-2, in-class exams (essays, short answer) (ea. 25 points)

-1, 600-700 word summary/critical review of an original site or survey report on an archaeological project in Oceania. (20 points)

-class participation (15 points).

Map Quiz : This will be a short (15 min) quiz to test your specific knowledge of Pacific Island geography. See term list (maps in course pack)

In-Class Exams: These will be essay and short-answer exams that will cover materials from class and readings. I will give you study guides to prepare for these.

Summary/Review paper : see handout.

Class participation : You need to come prepared to discuss the readings each class period. I will periodically be handing out questions for you to consider as you read the papers and text. I will base your participation grade on attendance and extent you come prepared to answer and ask questions.

Additional Notes:

1) The Anthropology Department does not permit instructors to give students "Incompletes" except by petition to the Department Chair. Please see the PSU Bulletin for the only conditions under which an "Incomplete" may be authorized. 2) According to University and Anthropology Department policy, a grade of C- is needed to "Pass" the course, if taking the course "Pass/No Pass". 3) Students registered with the Disability Resource Center who need accommodation, should notify the instructor.

 Course Schedule

Week Topics

1 Introduction; geography and environmental background, island ecosystems (variations, resources, hazards). Readings: Kirch Text, Intro, Ch. 1, 2;

2 Pleistocene settlement of Greater Australia; Pleistocene voyaging; Late Pleistocene/Early-Mid Holocene Human Occupation of Near Oceania. Highland New Guinea agriculture; Readings: Kirch Text Ch. 3; Allen 1996; Denham et al. 2003; MAP QUIZ: Wed, Oct 6 .

3 Lapita: archaeology, linguistics, biology; Readings: Kirch Text Ch. 4; Gibbons 2001; Howells 1979; Terrell et al. 2001

4 Post-Lapita in Melanesia; Micronesia. Readings: Kirch Text Ch. 5, 6; Williamson and Sabath 1984;

5 Micronesia.

6 Colonization of Polynesia, Irwin’s colonization model: “Against, Across, and Down the Wind” Readings: Kirch Text Ch. 7. Irwin, 1989. Midterm Exam Mon NOV. 1.

7 Cultural Change and Cultural Complexity: old and new models, multiple case studies. Readings: Kirch Text Ch. 8; Aswani and Graves 1998

8 Cultural Change and Cultural Complexity. Site Report Paper due: FRI Nov 19

9 Human Modification of Island Ecosystems. Readings: Fosberg 1963; Kirch and Ellison 1994; Steadman 1995; Athens et al. 2002.

10 Subsistence Change and Intensification. Readings: Kirch Text, Ch. 9, pp. 317-321; Ladefoged et al. 1996; Leach 1999.

In-Class FINAL EXAM: Monday, Dec 6 th, 12:30-2:20