The Challenges of Governing China, 1949


·        Ending national humiliation; integrating China.

“The Chinese people have stood up.”


·        Legacy of a weak state: “Where there is chaos within there is calamity without”; “China is no longer a loose sheet of sand.”


·        Mobilizing state resources: linking economic development to political authority.

“[The peasants] have not only lifted up their heads but taken power into their hands.”


·        Rectifying social injustice and class oppression: “Revolution is not a dinner party”; “Unite with all those capable of being united with.”


·        Changing the political culture: “We must have not only a new politics and a new economics, but also a new culture.”


·        Identifying with anti-imperialism in Asia and the world: “Why were the teachers always committing aggression against their pupils.”


·        Resolving the contradiction of “the West”: “We must not eat foreign food in one gulp.”


·        Implementing a program to transform China: “They had more learning but we had more truth.”