Post-Surrender Policy for Japan (August 1945)

“Japan will be completely disarmed and demilitarized.  The authority of the militarists and the influence of militarism will be totally eliminated for her political, economic, and social life.  Institutions expressive of the spirit of militarism and aggression will be vigorously suppressed.”


The Constitution of Japan (in effect May 1947)

Art. 9: “Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.

“In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained.  The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.”


Treaty of Peace with Japan (in effect, 1952)

(Art. 5 [c]): “The Allied Powers for their part recognize that Japan as a sovereign nation posseses the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense referred to in Article 51 of the Charter of the UN and that Japan may voluntarily enter into collective security arrangements.”


“Nothing in this provision [Art. 6 (a)] shall, however, prevent the stationing or retention of foreign armed forces in Japanese territory under or in consequence of any bilateral or multilateral agreements which have been or may be made between one or more of the Allied Powers, on the one hand, and Japan on the other.”


Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the US and Japan (1960)


(Art. 1) “The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the UN, to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means . . . and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force . . .”


(Art. 2) “The Parties will endeavor . . . to strengthen the UN so that its mission of maintaining international peace and security may be discharged more effectively.”


(Art. 5) “Each Party recognizes that an armed attack against either Party in the territories under the administration of Japan would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional provisions and processes.”


(Art. 6) “For the purpose of contributing to the security of Japan and the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East, the US of America is granted the use by its land, air and naval forces of facilities and areas in Japan.”