Track I

ASEAN 10 - est. 1967.  Original Members: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; then Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Laos and Burma (1997), Cambodia (1998).


ASEAN-PMC (Post-Ministerial Conference) - est. 1972 - cooperation among ASEAN-6 and 7 “dialogue partners”; in 1992 security cooperation added to                       agenda, along with observer states.


ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) - est. 1994 - trade liberalization


ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) - est. 1994 by ASEAN-PMC for security confidence-building.  Includes ASEAN-PMC and Dialogue Partners (24 in all).


            ASEAN-Europe Meeting (ASEM) – est. 1996.


            ASEAN+3 – est. 1996 – annual meetings of ASEAN, PRC, ROK, Japan


APEC - est. 1989.  23 “economies.”  Consultative grouping for economic cooperation based on “open regionalism.”  Working groups and Networks.


KEDO (Korean Peninsula Energy Development Org.) – 1994 – ROK, US, Japan, EU


Track II

PECC - est. 1980.  Over 20 members.  Regional economic cooperation involving non-business as well as business sectors, and state officials.  Outgrowth of Pacific Basin Economic Council, est. 1967.

PBEC - business.

CSCAP (Council for Security Cooperation in Asia Pacific, 1993) - scholars

NACD (Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue, 1994) - IGCC, La Jolla, Calif. - scholars, government and military officials.

Northeast Asia Economic Forum – conferences on economic cooperation.

Chinese business networks


GREATER CHINA (Chinese Economic Area): SE Coastal PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong

SIJORI (Singapore, Johor/Malaysia), Riau (Indo): 1989; private sector activity

NORTHERN GROWTH TRIANGLE: w. Indonesia, n. Malaysia, s. Thailand.

BAHT ECON. ZONE: Yunnan, PRC; Vietnam, Laos, ne Thailand (private sector)

TUMEN RIVER (TRADP): Russia, PRC, Mongolia, ROK, DPRK, Japan (UNDP)

YELLOW SEA EZ: n. PRC, Japan, ROK (private sector)

JAPAN SEA EZ: Japan, e. Russia, ne China, ROK, DPRK (private sector)

Track III: NGOs and Popular Movements

Environmental, energy, human rights, security dialog.  Examples: Nautilus Institute, Greenpeace,

Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch Asia, Walhi (Indonesia), farmers’ and labor associations.