SINCE 1945



During the Cold War


Post-Cold War


Liberal trading order: BrettonWoods, 1944


One-world system: GATT/WTO


Revival of Germany and Japan


Germany & Japan as economic powerhouses


3 worlds, 2 superpowers

US hegemony: dollar and bomb


4 or 5 worlds, 1 superpower; econ. multipolarity.


Isolated China, Soviet empire


China rising, Russia imploding


Complex interdependence emerging


Complex interdependence evolved into “globalization”


Geopolitics: “National security” based on ideology, alliances, big-power proxy interventionism, military power.


Geoeconomics: “National security” based increasingly on economic, technology, information, labor, resource base.


Bilateralism, subordinate nationalism


bilateralism and multilateralism; nationalism and transnationalism


Third World: debt crisis and revolution


ethnic, religious, nationalist crises; fragmentation and integration


cartels (OPEC)


regionalism (APEC, NAFTA) and regionalization (growth triangles)


preeminence of international politics


preeminence of domestic politics