In the context that "everything is connected"
and the statement that "correlation is not necessarily cause":
1. Explain in your own words why "correlation is not necessarily cause"
2. Give an example of how the list of factors on the demographic transition page may have helped move a population out of the population growth/poverty trap.
A correlation is when two events or observations happen in a related manner but this does not mean that one caused the other. There is no causal linkage even though this is often implied. In a scientific treatement of these problems we need to be clear about stating our assumptions or hypotheses, such as if we think that there is a mechanism that connects the two observations.
The demographic transition is a good example of this. We listed many factors that all happen at the same time (better health care, education, employment choices for women, value of skilled labor, and others). It is impossible to determine from these broad brush treatments of historical observations that one of these factors "caused" others to occur.
However, there are small improvements in a society that may contribute to the overall cycle of improvement and because "everything is connected" a small improvement in one area should lead to a positive feedback and increase of benefits in many areas.