Physics PH 381 – Physical Metallurgy for Engineers



 Lecturer:                               Peter Moeck, Dr. rer. nat. (Crystallography),

                                                Assistant Professor of Physics


                                                Office Hours: Tuesday and Thursday 12:00-12:30 pm

                                                and by appointment


                                                Office Location: SB 2, room 404,,

                                                Tel. 725-4227,

                                                but I do prefer to communicate with my students per e-mail and do

                                                not open e-mail attachments of any kind as a matter of principle


I don’t require my students to purchase a book, if you would like to purchase one, go for one of these


highly recommended

textbook:                                The Science and Design of Engineering Materials, 2nd edition

                                        by James P. Schaffer, Ashok Saxena, Stephen D. Antolovich, Thomas H. Sanders, and Steven Warner, Mc Graw Hill, 1999


other recommended

textbooks:                               Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 6th edition by James F. Shackelford, Prentice Hall, 2004


                                                Essentials of Materials Science and Engineering, 1st edition by Donald R. Askeland and Pradeep P. Phulé, Thomson, Books/Cole, 2004 – essentially a shortened but sufficient paperback (only about $ 65) version of The Science and Engineering of Materials, 4th edition by Donald R. Askeland and Pradeep P. Phulé, Thomson, Books/Cole, 2003


                                                Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, An Integrated Approach, 2nd edition by William D. Callister, Jr., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005


                                                Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 3/e edition by William F. Smith, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2003


                                                Modern Physical Metallurgy $ Materials Engineering, 6th edition, R.E. Smallman, R.J Bishop, Butterworth Heinemann, 


other books used

throughout the country

for similar courses:                Properties of Materials, by Mary Anne White, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1999, paperback, so it won’t be too expensive


                                                Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction, 6th edition by William D. Callister, Jr., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003 – you probably had this one for EAS 213


                                                Understanding Materials Science, History, Properties, Applications, 1st edition by Rolf E. Hummel, Springer 1998, only about $ 60, fun to read and all you need to know about properties of materials


or older editions of any of these books


 the lectures, midterm and final exams are based on all of these books and my over 20 years experience as a materials scientist


you can also access for free information on basically all engineering questions you may have, as long as they keep this site open


you may also like to check out

for lecture notes in *.pdf format for a straightforward “Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering” course on the basis of the new Callister text at one of the top schools in this country.


also recommended:                to have your undergraduate physics textbooks (including an introductory modern physics text, e.g. K. Krane, Modern Physics, Wiley, 1996, and a solid state physics, e.g. M.N. Rudden and J. Wilson, Elements of Sold State Physics, Wiley, 1993) handy as their relevant content will come up in class



more advanced text                Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2nd edition, by Thomas H. Courtney, McGraw Hill, 2000

                                                The Physics and Chemistry of Materials, 1st edition, by Joel I. Gersten and Frederick W. Smith, John Wiley & Sons, 2001

                                                Structures and Properties of Engineering Materials, 5th edition by Daniel P. Henkel and Alan Pense, McGraw Hill, 2001

                                                Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, 2nd edition, by Safa O. Kasap, McGraw Hill, 2002

                                                Structure and Bonding in Crystalline Materials, Gregory S. Rohrer, Cambridge University Press, 2001

                                                Physical Metallurgy Principles, R. E. Reed-Hill, R. Abbaschian, 3rd edition,  PWS Publ. Company Boston, 1994

                                                Structure of Metals, 3rd revised edition, by Charles Barrett and Tadeusz B. Massalski, Pergamon Press, 1993, the classical Physical Metallurgy text

                                                The Structure of Materials, 1st edition, by Samuel M. Allen and Edwin L. Thomas, John Wiley & Sons, 1999, Crystallography as taught at MIT

                                                Introduction to Materials Science, Jean P. Mercier, Gérald Zambelli, Wilfried Kurz, Introduction to Materials Science, Elsevier, 2002 – the translation of a very successful textbook from France    

                                                Crystallography, 2nd edition, by Walter Borchard-Ott, Springer, 1995, developed out of a crystallography course in Germany

                                                Crystallography and Crystal Defects, A. Kelley, G.W. Groves, and P. Kidd, Revised edition, 2000, Wiley,

                                                developed out of a crystallography course in the U.K.



fun texts to read at bedtime    The Quantum Dot, Richard Turton, Oxford University Press, 1996, about $ 15 only, but a good description of the current microelectronics and its possible future


                                                Materials in Today’s World, 2nd edition, by Peter A. Thrower, McGraw Hill, 1996, can’t be expensive as one can get it in paperback, there are no color illustration and all the other things that make a book expensive


Bits and pieces of all of these texts will be presented in the lectures (and asked off you in the midterm and final exams). As you already had EAS 213, this is definitely not another Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering course! The nice thing about the Schaffer at al. text is that it takes what they call the “integrated approach”, which “stresses fundamental concepts applicable to all materials first and then points our the unique characteristic of each materials class”

                                                that is how we will proceed as well ! At some other place Shaffer at al. write: “In fact: one of the key issues in materials engineering is to be able to understand and model the interaction between external variables and atomic scale structures.”


                                                Even one of the former proponents of the classical “Metals First” approach to teaching an introductory materials science and engineering course concedes that about 55 % of surveyed engineering faculty in the nation now either use the integrated approach or are interested in using it.


                                                Following up on that and a prior much more comprehensive survey on the recommended course content of an introductory materials science and engineering course, it can be inferred that about 93.8 % of all polled engineering faculty would be happy with the content of this Phys 381 course. Then there is a paper by the famous R.W. Cahn, FRS, that states more or less bluntly that considering metallurgy as separate from materials science and as a discipline in its own right is simply reactionary, click here to have a  look at it. More arguments against the metals first and for the integrated approach can be found here and in Spanish here.


                                                As such this course and its context may be better described by something along the lines:


                              Materials Science for Engineers, alternatively Structure and Properties of Engineering Materials would be a good course title as well


                                                This course’s aim is to allow you to learn just enough about Materials Science, Physical Metallurgy, Metallography, and the emerging Nanoscience and Nanotechnology field so that you will be able to communicate and collaborate with Materials Scientists and Applied Physicists in your professional life as an engineer.


                                                As Physical Metallurgy and Metallography are now integral part of Materials Science, I am sure you will be much better off learning about Materials Science as a whole rather than only about two of its sub-disciplines (as exemplified by e.g. Structure and Properties of Engineering Materials, 5th edition, by Daniel P. Henkel and Alan W. Pense, Mc-Graw Hill, 2001); Schaffer et al. wrote on metals: “they are considered to be mature materials with relative little potential for major breakthroughs.” 


                                                along similar lines, Samuel M. Allen and Edwin L. Thomas state:


“… there is a common set of principles governing the structure and properties of many different types of materials … an understanding of these principles forms the foundation of a modern education in the field of materials science and engineering.”


“Facility with crystallography is a primary skill for communication in materials science and engineering.”


The authors of the more advanced physical metallurgy text mentioned above write in the preface of their book: “it should be pointed out that metal fabrication and alloy properties are fields that are characteristically factual in nature. …be admitted that time spent learning large numbers of apparently unrelated facts is frequently wasted. Information of this sort is easily forgotten and, what is more, today’s alloys and methods are not necessarily those of tomorrow. On the other hand, the theoretical approach to physical metallurgy is premised on the belief that the properties of metals and alloys are determined by simple physical laws, …    



so what this course tries to achieve is clarifying the simple physical laws of structure property relationships of crystalline engineering materials – with necessity we have to deal with the laws of structure, i.e. crystallography first


Bernhardt Wuensch defines materials science as being primarily about the “relation between the structure of matter and its properties” and materials engineering as being primarily about the “modification of properties and performance during and after processing, and with manufacture”,


                                  One may, thus, define the materials science and engineering super-discipline loosely as being about communications between (materials) scientist and (materials) engineers. Surely a “language” is needed for this communication to happen. As far as the crystalline state is concerned, this “language” is in my opinion crystallography and its “words” are the crystallographic core concepts.






 lectures:                                Tuesday 18:00 – 22:10 pm



Teaching Assistants: demonstrate the SEM/EDXS lab sessions


Supporting Scientist: Prof. Chunfei Li, in charge of the day to day running of PSU’s electron microscopy center, demonstrator in the TEM/STEM/EELS/EDXS lab sessions sometimes supported by his graduate students 


teaching assistant and grader: Girish Upreti, MSc in Physics           , – get in touch with him about the grading of your coursework and midterm



Prerequisites for this class are EAS 213, PH 213 or PH 223, and CH 223. It is not a good idea to take EAS 213 concurrently. The head of the physics department and I expect that you do possess the knowledge that is taught in EAS 213.



This is formally a 3-credit hour course, so there are formally three hours lectures and one hour laboratory, all on Tuesday evenings. From the second week onwards, each week your “laboratory group” will take turns in visiting the SEM/EDXS and TEM/STEM laboratories for 55 minutes – the teaching assistant will organize these things and help in the demonstrations at the sites. There will be two Make-up Laboratory visits if you cannot attend when your group is scheduled. These labs start always at 18.00 sharp.


During these laboratory sessions, introductions to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) at a SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM/EELS) are given. These laboratory session will be very helpful to your coursework project, so be attentive.


Then come three ≈ 55 minute lectures, starting at 19:00 sharp with two times 5-10 minutes break in between – lasting up to about 22.10.


So from the second week onward, if your laboratory group is not scheduled for a visit, you just turn up in time for the lectures at 19.JJ (and keep on J! even if you are a bit tired)


We do not take a register at the lectures and the laboratory, but you better come at least to the lectures as it is the things I pay special emphasis to that are going to come up in the midterm and final exams.


course work: report due at the very very very latest in 9th week – if you don’t hand in your report, you loose 30 % of the whole points you can make in this course and your grade won’t be all that good


course work:


1. read this paper and answer these questions


2. go to and answer these questions reading either this paper with color images, or this paper with gray scale images will help you 


3. go to

read the file very carefully, answer puzzlers 1 to 7, plus question 8: “find out how many atoms are there at the very margin of the disk”, plus question 9: “determine the net-plane spacing for {111} and {100} planes of Si directly from that web site”. (For 8 and 9 you have to provide a description on how you came up with the numbers and lengths as well !).


if you get fed up with looking at the duck – or the contrast is annoying you, try


if you don’t get assignment No. 3 to work: go to the Java site and download the right kind of driver (or if needed everything that is for free), install and restart your computer, ask the guys at the PDX helpdesk, … I am not really a computer guy myself



Grading Policy


The final grade for the course will be based on your performance in three areas: midterm exam, final exam, and course work. The grade percentage for each part is listed below:


                                    Course work                30 %


Midterm exam             30 %


Final exam                   40 %



so if you do well all through the course, the final exam is not going to make much of a change to your final grade



any kind of cheating during the midterm and final exams will result in a “ZERO” grade for that exam, any kind of cheating twice during the course will result in a fully fledged disciplinary procedure with aims at you getting a fail grade for this course.


lecture subjects and schedules



Disclaimer: the views expressed in these lecture notes are my personal views, the lecture notes were assembled from the recommended text books given above and power-point slides that are provided with some of these text books. Since these lecture notes are intended to supplement the lectures (rather to supercede them), you are well advised to attend the lectures, augment the notes during the lectures as you see fit, and come to my office during the above given office hours for clarifications (of any kind).          


lecture plan and downloads


1st week           What are metallurgy, metallography, physical metallurgy, and materials science?

                        What makes materials science a science? download lecture manuscript here


2nd week          The materials science and engineering tetrahedrons, various classification of materials,

                        Anisotropy of Physical Properties, Materials Science and Engineering at the nanometer

                        level, download here: nanotechnology, the debate, if you want to know more about nano-

                        materials science and engineering, watch a video from the BBC at

              , don’t be afraid of nanoparticles, for “shopping”

                         of nano-products go to, you will probably be

                        surprised how many nano-products there are already


3rd week          Atomic Structures, Arrangements, and resultant properties download lecture manuscript here 


4th week          Geometrical-structural Crystallography, ideal structure I download lecture manuscript here  


5th week          Geometrical-structural Crystallography, ideal structure II


                        either 5th or 6th week: MIDTERM EXAM all the things we covered so far then /


6th week          Geometrical-structural Crystallography, ideal structure III


7th week          Diffraction and other Materials Analysis Methods


8th week          Geometrical-structural Crystallography, real structure I,

                        download lecture manuscript here,

                        (by the way: nanostructured metals deform differently since the concept of a dislocation is

                        no longer useful, have a look at this paper from the Materials Research Bulletin)


9th week          Geometrical-structural Crystallography, real structure II, don’t forget to hand in your course

                        work assignment at the beginning of the lecture or you forfeit 30 % of your total course



10th week           Geometrical-structural Crystallography, real structure III


courtesy of Prof. Michael Hietschold, Technical University Chemnitz, Germany, here are his slides from the special guest lectures

courtesy of PSU’s Prof. Rolf Koenenkamp and em. Prof. Pavel Dr. Smejtek, here are the lecture notes on superconductivity  


finals, same place, 19:30 to 21:20 pm, sorry I can’t do anything about the time, lecture notes and books are OK to use during the finals, laptops and cellular phones definitively not!


some interesting movies on crystallography can be found at
some more basic crystallography can be found at



I make a point (and effort) to answer any question, so we may or may not progress faster or slower than this schedule implies, if time permits, we will also deal with


Electronic, Optical, and Dielectric Properties download lecture manuscript here

Magnetic Properties and Materials, Thermal Properties download lecture manuscript here



courtesy of Prof. Fitzgerald from the University of Virginia, you may download how one does TEM including some basic crystallography, + TEM more advanced,  Scanning electron microscopy,  Scanning Probe Microscopies + (Scanning Probe Microscopies) more advanced , X-ray diffraction, and Focused Ion Beam techniques,


you may also download files on what is going on in cold working and annealing, some more explanations on mechanical properties can be found here,  but you should know these things very well know from your previous materials engineering course – do note the difference between a materials science treatment, coming always from atomic arrangements etc. and the macroscopic description in pure engineering terms typically being not concerned with the atomistic details at all


courtesy of Prof. Peter Goodhew of Liverpool University in England, here are web sites of a complete basic course on transmission electron microscopy based on the textbook: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Part I, Basics by D.B. Williams and C.B. Carter and a lecture series on diffraction


what an engineer working with materials typically does can be found here


if we get the equipment going, i.e. reliable and fast internet access + LCD projector we will have breaks from the lecture routine by going on line to check out some materials sites


week 1: min-video “Disassembly of a liquid crystal watchat


week 2: demonstration SEM/EDXS – group I, mini-video Nanoscience and Technology perhaps from DVD,


week 3: demonstrating SEM/EDXS - group II, mini-video “Amorphous metals” at


week 4: demonstrating SEM/EDXS - group IIII, mini–video “Carbon Nanotubes” at


week 5: demonstrating TEM/STEM, - group I,  and “Defects in Salt Crystals” at,


week 6: demonstrating TEM/STEM – group II, mini-video “Eaerogel” at


week 7: demonstrating TEM/STEM – group III, mini-videos “Silicon”  at , and “Computer chips” at


week 8: demonstrating TEM/STEM - make up lab if you had some good reason not to attend when your group was scheduled - – or if you have problems doing your coursework and want to talk to the teaching assistant about it, mini-videos “NiTi shape memory alloys” at, “NiTi mystery” at,


week 9:– demonstrating SEM/EDXS - make up lab if you had some good reason not to attend when your group was scheduled – or if you have problems doing your coursework and want to talk to the teaching assistant about it, mini-video  “Self assembly” at, and mini-video on “STM principle” at


week 10: no lab, so we start at 18.00 sharp, very last hour of course, discussions about whatever remained unclear to you from the lectures, the midterm exam, or the course work, all in preparation of the final exam, mini-videos “Organic Light Emitting Diodes” and Titanium Dioxide Raspberry Solar Cells” both at




You will have to break up into smaller groups for the demonstrations of the SEM/EDXS, TEM/STEM/EELS, as the space there is limited – the teaching assistant will organize these visits


check out the internet electron microscope in England at

and steel matters at


Final exam: you should sit a bit separated from your fellow student and can spread out all the useful things you brought with you (except laptops with internet connections), it’s a good idea to bring a copy of the lecture, don’t worry about the exam – there is nothing needed to be learned by heart, the exam will test understanding and you have all the lecture note material to back your thinking up, OK? Good luck anyhow.


that’s a scanning infrared polariscopy image of an unintentionally (non-optimized molecular beam epitaxial growth process) deformed 2 inch diameter GaAs wafer, for the related materials science have a look at one of my papers or check out the whole “last 5 years” lot of them, we actually did solve the problem and redesigned the wafer holder of a ($ 1 million) commercial piece of equipment, then there was no longer any unintentional plastic deformation, so one could say this was an example of materials science and engineering in action, done mainly by an applied physicist (i.e. me, at Oxford University’s Department of Materials and at Imperial College’s Interdisciplinary Research Center for Semiconducting Materials) and an electrical engineer (i.e. Gilbert Smith, at what was then the British Defense and Evaluation Research Agency, Great Malvern)