PH 495/595, Materials Physics: Structure
and physical Properties of ordered and disordered Condensed Matter

**Last updated: November 20, 2018 **

**Neuberger Hall, room 388, Mo/We 12:00 to 13:50 pm**

** Lecturer: **Peter Moeck, Dr. rer. nat. (Crystallography), PhD

Professor of Physics

Office Hours: Tuesday and Thursday 12:00-12:30 pm and by appointment

Office Location: SRTC, room 404, pmoeck at pdx.edu

Tel. 503 725 4227,
*but
I do prefer to communicate with my students per e-mail or in person*

Access and Inclusion for Students
with Disabilities PSU values diversity and inclusion; we are committed to
fostering mutual respect and full participation for all students. My goal is to
create a learning environment that is equitable, useable, inclusive, and
welcoming. If any aspects of instruction or course design result in barriers to
your inclusion or learning, please notify me. The Disability Resource Center
(DRC) provides reasonable accommodations for students who encounter barriers in
the learning environment. If you have, or think you may have, a disability that
may affect your work in this class and feel you need accommodations, contact
the

If you already have accommodations, please contact me to make sure that I have
received a faculty notification letter and discuss your accommodations.
Students who need accommodations for tests and quizzes are expected to schedule
their tests to overlap with the time the class is taking the test.

Title IX Reporting Obligations As an instructor,
one of my responsibilities is to help create a safe learning environment for my
students and for the campus as a whole. Please be aware that as a faculty
member, I have the responsibility to report any instances of sexual harassment,
sexual violence and/or other forms of prohibited discrimination. If you would
rather share information about sexual harassment, sexual violence or
discrimination to a confidential employee who does not have this reporting
responsibility, you can find a list of those individuals or contact a confidential
advocate at 503-725-5672. For more information about Title IX please complete
the required student module Creating a Safe Campus in your
D2L.

**Course
description and syllabus, **liable
to change as some function of the student interests in the course.** **

This
course provides a thorough introduction to the very wide and diverse field of
Materials Physics. Modern geometric-structural crystallography is at the core
of this field because it allows for the derivation of the physical properties
of condensed matter.

Point
and space symmetries of crystals are first introduced in 2D and applied to data
types that are used in electron crystallography. Fourier analyses and syntheses
(as well as reciprocal space) are also first introduced in 2D and then
generalized up to six spatial dimensions with special emphasis of the 3D case. This
is followed by the discussion of point and space symmetries in 3D and a brief
discussion of their utility in single crystal X-ray crystallography and
discrete electron tomography.

The
laboratory component of this course is concerned with quantitative powder X-ray
diffraction. All student will receive a different powder mixture of some unknown
crystal phases (but qualitatively know element content) and need to quantify
its phase content by a Rietveld analysis. (A fee of $75 per student needs to be
charged for this part of the course as the source of the X-rays wears down over
time and needs to be replaced after a couple of years at a cost of about $3k.)

A
few structural prototypes are covered and their Bärnighausen
trees derived on the basis of the International Tables for Crystallography
Vols. A and A1.

Neumann's
and Curie's symmetry principles provide the bridge from crystal structures to
the physical properties of materials. Tensors will be utilized as most
effective mathematical representation of the anisotropy of physics properties.

Following
developments of the last two decades, crystallographic symmetries are treated
as continuous features in order to gain deeper insight into structure property
relationships.

Prerequisites/co-requisites

Physics 211 - 213, 221 - 223, 311, 312, 314 - 316, 322,
431/531, 432/532, 434/534 and their prerequisites; Mathematics 251–253:
Calculus I-III, 256: Differential equations and multivariate calculus, 261:
Linear Algebra and their prerequisites

Course
objectives - Provide the basis for a firm understanding on how atomic
arrangements and chemical bond types determine the physical properties of
condensed matter. Go way beyond classical geometric structural crystallography
by including crystal defects, textures, pseudo-symmetry, symmetries
as continuous features, modulated structures, and quasicrystals. Teach students
how to perform quantitative powder X-ray diffractometry.

Student
learning outcomes – (1)
Students will gain a firm understanding on how atomic arrangements and chemical
bond types determine the physical properties of condensed matter. (2) Students
will also get to know core concepts of modern geometric structural
crystallography and will be able to apply them correctly; (3) Students will be
able to perform quantitative powder X-ray diffractometry
hands on.

Outline of course content –

Week 1 – Causes and manifestations of crystalline order,
types of chemical bonds and derived

properties, a few structural prototypes for different types
of materials

Week 2 – Bravais lattices, metric
tensor, coordinate transformations, crystallographic calculations

Week 3 – point and space group symmetries in 2D and 3D
including sub-periodic layer and rod groups

as well as color symmetries,

Week 4 – International Tables of Crystallography, open
access crystallographic databases,

Bärnighausen trees of a few structural prototypes

Week 5 – kinematic diffraction and imaging theory - Fourier
transforms & reciprocal space,

crystallographic
image processing, electron diffraction patterns, structure factors as
properties

of crystals

Week 6 – Quantitative powder X-ray diffraction: diffraction theory
(Fourier transforms) and praxis,

Rietveld
refinement and crystallographic databases

Week 7 – Neumann's and Curie's symmetry principles, Symmetries
as continuous features

Week 8 – Tensors: capturing the essence of anisotropy of physical
properties, the open access Materials

Property
Database

Week 9 –

order in the 4^{th}
and 5^{th} spatial dimension)

Week 10 – Quasicrystals and general
grain boundaries (long range order in the 6^{th} spatial dimension)

Course requirements and method of evaluation –

Attendance 10%

Homeworks and Assignments 30%

take home exams 60%

there will be different homeworks, assignments, and take home exams for undergraduates
and graduate students.

The method of evaluation is the
same for both undergraduate and graduate students, but the quality and quantity
of the homeworks, assignments, and take home exams
differ significantly. Graduate students have to demonstrate their understanding
of the course material at a significantly deeper level than undergraduate
students. More specifically, graduate students have to demonstrate that they
are able to apply the course material creatively, i.e. are capable of doing
their own research.

Out of 100% of totally achievable points, students will
receive a letter grade or P/NP based upon a curve where the minimum grades will
be:

A: 96-100%

A-: 91-95%

B+: 86-90%

B: 81-85%

B-: 76-80%

C+: 71-75%

C: 66-70%

C-: 61-65%

D+: 56-60%

D: 51-55%

D-: 46-50%

F: < 46%

Passing will be for points over 50%

*suggested**
reading list, bits and pieces from these books will become part of the power
point slides for the course, there is no single textbook that contains all of
the context above at the right level and coverage *

R. E.
Newnham, properties of materials, anisotropy, symmetry, structure, Oxford
University Press. 2005, (paperback, about $ 60)

M. De Graef, M. E. McHenry, Structure of Materials, An
introduction to crystallography, diffraction and symmetry, 2nd edition,
Cambridge University Press, 2012

D. R.
Lovett, Tensor Properties of Crystals, IoP Publishing
1999

E. Zolotoyabko, Basic Concepts of Crystallography, Wiley-VCH,
paperback

R.
Glaser, Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography: The Structural Nexus,
Wiley-VHC, 2015 (free download of first chapter:
http://www.wiley-vch.de/books/sample/3527337490_c01.pdf)

M. M.
Julian, Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications, CRC press,
2008

P. G. Radaelli, Symmetry in Crystallography, Understanding the
International Tables, IUCr texts on Crystallography
17,

S. M.
Allen, E. L. Thomas, The structure of materials, Wiley 1998

K. Hermann,
Crystallography and Surface Structure, Wiley-VHC, 2011

D. Schwarzenbach, Crystallography, Wiley and Sons, 1993

L. S. D.
Glaser, Crystallography and its applications, van Nostrand,
Reinhold Company Limited, 1977

K.-W.
Benz and W. Neumann, Introduction to Crystal Growth and Characterization,
Wiley-VHC, 2014, paperback

U. Müller, Symmetry Relations between

Y. Waseda, E. Matsubara, K. Shinoda,
X-ray diffraction crystallography, Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems,
Springer, 2011

X. Zou,
S. Hovmoeller, P. Oleynikov,
Electron Crystallography, Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction, Oxford
University Press, IUCr Texts on Crystallography 16,
2011

Finally, my general teaching
philosophy: *“If you want to
build a ship, don't drum up people together to collect wood and don't assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the
endless immensity of the sea.” Antoine
de Saint-Exupéry*