CF-Matter and the Cold Fusion Phenomenon*

Hideo Kozima

Physics Department, Portland State University

Portland, OR97207‑0751, USA

Email address: cf‑lab.kozima@nifty.ne.jp

 

The working concept of gcf-matter,h defined as gneutron drops in a thin neutron liquidh as described in previous papers, is used to explain complex events, especially nuclear transmutations, in cold fusion phenomenon (CFP). In samples used in CF experiments, the cf‑matter contains high‑density neutron drops in surface/boundary regions while in the volume it contains only a few of them, in accordance with experimental data. Generation of various nuclear transmutations, the most interesting features in CFP, are explained naturally if we use the concept of the cf-matter. Qualitative correspondence between the relative isotopic abundance of elements in the universe and the number of observations of elements in CFP is shown using more than 40 experimental data, sets. This facts is an evidence show­ing statistically that CFP in transition‑metal hydrides/deuterides is a low energy version of nuclear processes occurring in the stars catalyzed by, specific neutrons in the cf‑matter formed in surface/boundary regions of CF materials.

 

1       Abundance of Elements in the Universe

A characteristic of stability of nuclides is relative isotopic abundance in the universe. A data is given in Tables 1 and 2 picked up from Table III of' Suess et al.1) The relative abundance of the observed stable species depends oil the process of creation, which may have singled out particular nuclear types for preferential formation and also depends on the nuclear stability limits.2)

These characteristics of nuclides in the stars (and the primordial universe) given in Tables 1 and 2 should be closely related to appearance of new nuclides in experimental observations of CFP if the processes in CF materials have some common nature to those, in the stars. It is probable that the more stable a nuclide is, the more often observed the nuclide produced in complex processes occurring in CF materials.

 

 

Table 1: Relative isotopic abundance in the universe (I). Light even-even nuclei (A < 60) at around abundance peaks from Table III of Suess et al.1) The gLog10Hh in the second row stands for gLog10 relative abundance.h

Nuclides

115B

126C

147N

168O

2010Ne

2412Mg

2713Al

2814Si

3115P

Log10H 

1.3

6.6

6.8

7.3

6.9

5.9

5.0

6.0

4.0

Nuclides

3216S

3617Cl

18A

19K

4020Ca

4521Sc

22Ti

23V

24Cr

Log10H 

5.6

4.0

5.2

3.5

4.7

0.4

3.4

2.3

3.9

Nuclides

5525Mn

5626Fe

5927Co

5828Ni

29Cu

6430Zn

 

 

 

Log10H 

3.8

5.8

3.3

4.4

2.3

2.7

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Relative isotopic abundance in the universe (II). Heavy nuclei (element) (A > 88) from Table III of Suess et al.1) The "Log10H" in the second row stands for "Log10 relative abundance."

 

Nuclides

8838Sr

9040Zr

42Mo

44Ru

46Pd

47Ag

50Sn

52Te

54Xe

56Ba

Log10H

  1.2

  1.5

 0.4

  0.2

0.08

 0.04

 0.12

0.67

0.60

0.56

Nuclides

13957La

58Ce

59Pr

13977Ir

78Pt

79Au

80Hg

82Pb

83Bi

 

Log10H

0.30

 0.35

 0.06

 0.09

0.21

0.02

0.05

0.07

0.02

 

 

2. Formation of the cf‑matter

By the mechanism shown in previous papers,4-6) the cf‑matter (interacting particle feature) is formed in boundary/surface regions when there are the neutron valence bands (independent-particle feature) mediated by hydrogen isotopes in fcc/hcp transition‑metal hydrides/deuterides and proton conductors where hydrogen isotopes are in states with extended wave functions

In a homogeneous neutron star matter, i.e. a neutral medium composed of high density (nG) neutrons, protons and electrons, as the simulation by Negele et al.7) had shown, there appears the Coulomb lattice of neutron drops AZ in a thin neutron liquid (with a density of nb) by the self‑organization. In the case of the cf-matter in CF materials, there is a crystal lattice, which seems to make appearance of the Coulomb lattice of neutron drops easier as experimental facts in CFP suggest than in the neutron star matter.

 

3. Coulomb lattice in the cf‑matter

Several features of the characteristics of the Coulomb lattices of neutron drops (clusters of neutron, proton and electron) in neutron star matter are tabulated in Table 3.7) In this table, we added the proton‑to‑neutron ratios x of palladium, iron, and carbon nuclei averaged over isotopes by natural abundance, which are 0.77, 0.87, and 1, respectively.

 

In the work by Negele et al.,7) it was shown that a neutron star appears as a stable state when the density nG of the neutron star matter increased from 3~1035 to about 1038cm-3. If we change the parameter nG to the opposite direction, we will reach a situation where appear various atoms, principally the situation where elements are created in the stars; the more stable a nuclide is, the higher its production rate becomes. Comparing isotopic abundances in the universe (Tables 2 and 3) to experimental data of nuclear transmutation in CFP, we can show that CFP in CF materials is a similar process to those producing elements in the stars.

 

Table 3: The theoretical 7) and extrapolated to nG = 1~1030 cm-3 values of the lattice constant  a of Coulomb lattice, the proton‑to-neutron ratio x  in the neutron drops AZ (n-p clusters) and background  neutron density nb as functions of nG, the density of the original neutron gas, where nb is the density of the neutron liquid surrounding the neutron drops. The density of nucleons init neutron drop n is approximately constant and equal to 1038 cm-3  in the range where simulation is performed; n 1038 cm-3. For reference, a and x for the lattice of Pd metal and x, of Fe and C nuclei (all averaged over isotopes with natural abundances) are added along with extrapolated values of nb corresponding to their x.

 

G@cm3@

5~1037

5.7~1036

6~1035

1~1030

Pd

Fe

C

nb

a (A)

x

4~1037

4~10−4

   0.28

5~1036

7~10−4

   0.45

2~1035

9~10−4

   0.53

1~1029

2~103

   0.75

1027

2.5

0.77

1022

 

0.87

1016

 

1

nb /n

4~10−1

5~10−2

3~10−3

1~109

5~1011

1016

1022

 

 

4. Interaction of the cf‑matter with extraneous nuclides in terms of experimental data

We assume that the cf‑matter is formed in surface/boundary regions of CF materials when there are formed neutron valence bands.4,5) We concentrate at nuclear transmutations in CFP in this paper, while other events are naturally accompanied with them. It should be pointed out here about emission of light particles and photons from CF materials sometimes measured in experiments. The cf‑matter is formed principally in boundary/surface regions of CF materials and dissipation of liberated energy in the unclear reactions is confined in the cf‑matter. When the place where the nuclear reaction occurs is on the border of the cf‑matter very close to a surface of the sample, however, it is possible light particles and/or photons are emitted outward to be measured outside. Especially, emission of neutrons with up to more than 10 MeV is observed often as an example of this mechanism.8)

 

5. Production of New Nuclides in CFP

There are very many data of the nuclear transmutations (NTs) in CFP.

In Table 4, we give a summary of experimental data sets obtained mainly after 1996 showing broad production of new elements (Elements) with a number of papers reporting them (No. of papers). In this table, about 40 data sets*) are counted including such productions of Ag (from Pd) and Fe (from C and others), which is not necessarily obvious but frequently occurring. A relation of frequency Nob of the observations of elements in CFP and gLog10H relative abundanceh in Tables 1 and 2 will be discussed later.

   The nuclear transmutations are phenomenologically classified into four groups; NTA, NTD, NTF, and NTT, i.e. nuclear transmutations (NT) by absorption, by decay, by fission and by transformation, respectively. The first three types of NTs are induced by a transfer of a nucleon cluster az between the cf‑matter (or a neutron drop AZ) and a nuclides AfZfX followed by various nuclear processes in the systems to produce the final stable nuclide AhZhX". Then the isotopic ratio of the produced elements will differ from the natural abundance ratio. In the case of NTT, we can expect the same isotopic ratio as the natural one as explained below.

 

Table 4: Elements observed more than once in Cf experiments (Z > 3). Number of papers reporting the observation, Nob, is calculated from 40 papers mainly after 1996.

 

Elements

Nob

3Li

  3

5B

1

6C

 5

8O

1

9F

 4

11Na

 1

12Mg

 6

13Al

 9

14Si

12

15P

  1

Elements

Nob

16S

  6

17Cl

6

19K

6

20Ca

 9

21Sc

 1

22Ti

 6

23V

 2

24Cr

13

25Mn

6

26Fe

19

Elements

Nob

27Co

  4

28Ni

10

29Cu

11

30Zn

13

31Ga

 1

32Ge

 3

33As

 1

34Se

 1

35Br

 2

37Rb

 2

Elements

Nob

38Sr

  5

39Y

1

40Zr

 1

41Nb

 1

42Mo

 5

46Pd

 3

47Ag

 7

48Cd

 3

49In

 2

50Sn

 3

Elements

Nob

51Sb

  1

52Te

2

54Xe

 2

55Cs

 1

56Ba

 4

59Pr

 1

62Sm

 1

63Eu

 1

64Gd

 1

66Dy

 1

Elements

Nob

67Ho

  1

70Yb

1

72Hf

 1

75Re

 1

76Os

 2

77Ir

 2

78Pt

 2

79Au

 2

80Hg

 2

82Pb

 6

 

The isotopic ratios observed in experiments differ sometimes from those calculated from natural abundances while does not differ in others. The cause of the discrepancy due to the processes of NTs will give a key to investigate nuclear reactions in CFP.

In these processes, no emission of photons and/or light nuclides to outside is expected to occur different from reactions in free space except the processes that occur on the border of the cf‑matter at surfaces of the sample.

 

5-1) Nuclear Transmutation by Absorption (NTA)

The nuclear transmutation by absorption, NTA, is a result of a process where a nuclide AZX simply absorbs a cluster az of (= a z:) neutrons and f= z protons from the cf‑matter: AZX + az= A+aZ+zX. In this process, the more stable the final nuclide A+aZ+zX,  the more frequent it will be produced.

There are many experimental data, showing production of new nuclides explicable only by NTA if we do not use concepts outside the realm of modern physics. Production of following nuclides are explained by NTA:

24Cr from 22Ti, 26Fe from 22Ti, 30Zn from 28Ni, 4019K from 3919K, 4119K from 3919K, 4319K from 3919K, 8937Rb from 85,8737Rb, 13455Cs from 13355Cs, 42Mo from 38Sr, 48Cd from 46Pd, 50Sn from 46Pd, 52Cd from 46Pd, 56Ba from 46Pd, 59Pr from 53Cs, 82Pb from 74W, 82Pb from 46Pd.

Some reactions producing nuclides with large decreases of Z and A occur and are explained as a result of NTF (cf. Section c) below). However. it is probable to assume reactions where occur transfer of a cluster of nuclides az from a nuclide AZX to a neutron drop A+aZ+z as inverse processes of the normal NTA. Some examples of these reactions are productions of following nuclides:

26Fe from 28Ni, 27Co from 28Ni, 25Mn from 28Ni, 24Cr from 28Ni, 42Mo from 46Pd, 77Ir from 78Pt, 76Os from 78Pt, 78Pt from 79Au, 76Os from 79Au, 30Zn from 46Pd.

We include these reactions in NTA hereafter.

 

 5-2) Nuclear Transmutation by Decay (NTD)

One of the most frequently detected NTs in CFP from early days of research is the nuclear transmutation by decay (NTD).

The nuclear transmutation by decay, NTD is a result of a process where the nuclides  A+aZ+zX (a=1, z=0) thus formed decays by emission of light nuclides, n, p, or , to form a new nuclide AfZfXf.8) Many data  showing production of nuclides with increase of proton number by one are explained successfully by this mechanism with = 1 and f = 0 as shown in the analyses by the TNCF model.8,9) In this process, the probability of the nuclide production will be governed by stability of A+1ZX and also by that of the final nuclide A+1Z+1Xf ( decay) or A-3Z-2Xf ( decay).

Several examples of this mechanism are production of following nuclides:

42He from 63Li, 83Li from 115B, 14Si from 13Al, 20Ca from 19K, 23V from 22Ti, 29Cu from 28Ni, 38Sr from 37Rb, 47Ag from 46Pd, 13554Xe from 13455Cs, 79Au from 78Pt, 80Hg from 79Ag.

 

5-3) Nuclear Transmutation by Fission (NTF)

The nuclear transmutation by fission, NTF, is a result of a process where the nuclides A+aZ+zX   (a1) suffers fission producing several nuclides with nucleon and proton numbers largely shifted from the value A + a and Z + z, respectively.8,13) The mass spectra of nuclear products in the nuclear transmutation by fission, NTF, observed in CFP can be explained as fission products of unstable nuclides Af+aZf+zXf formed by the above process similar to fission of 235U induced by a fast neutron. In this process, the mass spectrum is determined by stabilities of product nuclides.

There are many experimental data showing production of various medieval mass-number nuclides simultaneously. It is possible to explain dispersion of mass spectrum by the liquid‑drop model of nucleus popular in nuclear physics assuming formation of extra‑neutron rich nuclides from pre‑existing nuclides in the systems absorbing several neutrons from the cf‑matter.13)

There occur simultaneous productions of such many elements as follows: Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Os, Ir.

In experiments where observed many new elements simultaneously, explanation of the results by NTF seems most appropriate even if there remains a possibility to explain them by successive transmutations by NTA, NTD and/or NTT.

5-4) Nuclear Transmutation by Transformation (NTT)

The nuclear transmutation by transformation, NTT, is a result of a process where a neutron drop AZ in the cf‑matter transforms itself into a stable nuclide AZX in the material. Naturally, the more stable a neutron drop AZ is, the more frequent a nuclide AZX will be produced.

When products of nuclear transmutation are observed alone, it seems to be explained by NTT if the new elements have mass number A less 50 and that shifts from pre‑existing nuclides by more than 10. The nuclear transmutation by transformation, e.g. AZ into AZX seems probable only if there are neutron drops with stability that is sensitive to environment.

Products possibly explained by NTT (cf. Tables 1 and 2) are as follows:

126C, 2412Mg, 2814Si, 3216S, 35,3717Cl, 4020Ca, 5626Fe, 5828Ni, 20882Pb.

The production of Fe is observed very often in electrolytic experiments, in arcing between carbon rods and in others and is possibly explained as a result of NTT.

 

6. Relation of CFP Data with Abundances of the Elements

We can see correspondence of nuclear products of NTs in CFP with the abundances of the elements given in Section 1.

The most remarkable statistical data is seen in overall correspondence between the frequency Nob observing elements in CFP (Table 4) and the relative abundances log10H of elements in the universe (Tables 1 and 2) as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. This qualitative correspondence between two data (Nob and log10H) may be explained as follows.

Here, we point out only several of the most remarkable characteristics of them.

i). Accordance of log10H and Nob: There are several peaks with coincidence of Nob and log10H at Z = 14 (Si), 20 (Ca), 26 (Fe), 38 (Sr), and 82 (Pb). In these peaks, the one at Z = 26 (Fe) is the most remarkable despite the isotopic abundance of elements in the universe is in a logarithmic scale. Quantitative explanation of these data will need to use concrete experimental conditions.

ii). Discrepancy between log10H and Nob: Missing data in CFP at Z = 7 (N), 8 (O), 10 (Ne), 18 (Ar), and 40 (Zr) are noticeable. The first four of them may be explained as a result of difficulty in their observation. About the last one (Zr), we have no idea to explain the discrepancy, at present. The remarkable peak at Z = 47 (Ag) is a characteristic of CFP explained by NTD, from Pd that does not exist in the stars.

 

Figs. 1 and 2. Correspondence between the frequency Nob observing elements in CFP and the relative abundances log10H of elements in the universe for elements with atomic numbers Z = 3 |38 (Fig. 1) and Z = 39 |84 (Fig. 2).

 

Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the good coincidence of Nob and log10H discussed above is an evidence showing similarity of mechanisms working in CF materials and in the stars to produce new nuclides. This mechanism to produce nuclides from chaotic states of nucleons according to their stability is called gmechanism by stability." The coincidence of data in astrophysics and in CFP is called gstability effect": The more stable a nuclide is, the more frequent it is produced.

 

 

 

Discussion

As shown in this paper, there is the stability effect, a good coincidence of the isotopic abundance of elements in the universe log10H and frequency of observations of elements in CFP Nob. This effect shows that the mechanism to produce new nuclides in CFP is a low energy, localized version of the mechanism working in the stars catalyzed by the cf‑matter and nuclides in CF materials. Participation of neutrons as a catalyst makes nuclear reactions in CFP as effective to produce new nuclides as high‑energy processes in the stars.

Isotopic ratios of new isotopes produced in CFP reflect characteristics of nuclear processes participating to the production processes. It is most probable that products by NTT have similar isotopic ratios to natural ratios of the same element. Detailed investigation of these features will help to explore dynamics of nuclear interactions in the cf‑matter.

Thus, variety of nuclear transmutations observed in CFP are qualitatively and consistently explained by the existence of the cf‑matter worked out semi-quantitatively in previous papers.4,5)

 

Acknowledgement

The author would like to express his heart‑felt thanks to John Dash of Portland Stale University, USA, who made his stay at PSU from September 2000 possible, for valuable discussions on physics of CFP. Dash read a part of tile manuscript of this paper and improved the English. He is also thankful to Hiroshi Yamada of Iwate University, Japan for information about the nuclear transmutation and for valuable discussions throughout this work.

 

References

(*) Papers used to calculate Nob in Table 4 are listed on the end of this paper.

(1) H.E. Suess and H.C. Urey, ‑Abundances of the Elements" Rev. Mod. Phys. 28, 53 ‑ 74 (1956).

(2) W.E. Burcham, Nuclear Physics, 2nd Edition, Longman, London 1973. Chapter 10. The mass and isotopic abundance of nuclei.

(3) D. Pines and D. Bohm. "A Collective Description of Electron Interactions: II. Collective vs. Individual Particle Aspects of the Interactions" Phys. Rev. 85. 338 353 (1952).

(4) H. Kozima, "Excited States of Nucleons in a Nucleus and Cold Fusion Phenomenon in Metal Hydrides and Deuteridesh Proc. ICCF9, pp. 186 ‑ 191 (2003).

(5) H. Kozima, gNew Neutron State in Transition‑Metal Hydrides and Cold Fusion Phenomenon" Trans. Nucl. Society 88, 615 ‑ 617 (2003). And also H. Kozima, gCold Fusion Phenomenon in Transition‑Metal Hydrides/Deuterides and Its Application to Nuclear Technology" Fusion Science and Technol.  (submitted).

(6) H. Kozima. gNeutron Drop: Condensation of Neutrons in Metal Hydrides and Deuterides", Fusion, Technol. 37, 253 ‑ 258 (2000).

(7) J.W. Negele and D. Vautherin, Nuclear Physics, A207, 298 ‑ 320 (1973).

(8) H. Kozima. Discovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon – Evolution of the Solid State-Nuclear Physics and the Energy Crisis in 21st Century. Ohtake Shuppan KK.. Tokyo, Japan. 1998.

(9) H. Kozima, K. Kaki and M. Ohta, "Anomalous Phenomenon in Solids Described by the TNCF Modelh. Fusion Technol. 33,52 ‑ 62 (1998).

(10) H. Kozima, "Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Fusion of Deuterons and Protons in Inhomogeneous Solids,h Trans. Fusion Technol. 26, 508 ‑ 515 (1994).

(11) H. Kozima, K. Hiroe, M. Nomura, M. Ohta and K. Kaki, gAnalysis of Cold Fusion Experiments Generating Excess Heat, Tritium and Helium", J. Electroanal. Chem.. 425, 173 ‑ 178 (1997) and 445, 223 (1998).

(12) H. Kozima, J. Warner, C. Salas Cano and J. Dash. "TNCF Model Explanation of Cold Fusion Phenomenon in Surface Layers of Cathodes in Electrolytic Experiments" .J. New Energy, 7‑1. 64 ‑ 78 (2003). And also H. Kozima, .J. Warner, C. Salas Cano and .J. Dash, "Consistent Explanation of Topography Change and Nuclear Transmutation in Surface Layers of Cathodes in Electrolytic Cold Fusion Experimentsh Proc. ICCF9, pp. 178 ‑ 181 (2003).

(13) J.C. Fisher, ‑Liquid‑Drop Model for Extremely Neutron Rich Nucleih Fusion Technol. 34. 66‑75 (1998).

 

 

Papers used to count Nob in Table 4

(1*) A. Arapi, B. Ito, N. Sato, M. Itagaki. S. Narita and H. Yamada, "Experimental Observation of the New Elements Production in the Deuterated and/or Hydride Palladium Electrodes, Exposed to the Low Energy DC Glow Discharge", Condensed Matter Nuclear Surface (Proc. ICCF9)  (2002. Peking, China), pp. 1‑4 (2003). And also A. Arapi et al. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1181‑L1183 (2002). [Pd‑Au/D2,H2: Li. Mo. Ba].

(2*) J.O'M. Bockris and Z. Minevski, "Two Zones of gImpuritiesh Observed after Prolonged Electrolysis of Deuterium on Palladium'. Infinite Energy Nos. 5 & 6. 67-69 (1996). [Pd‑Pt/LiOD (?); Mg, Ag, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn]

(3*) R.T. Bush, gA Light Water Excess Heat Reaction suggests that eCold Fusion' may be 'Alkali‑Hydrogen Fusion' " Fusion Technol. 22, 301 (1992). [Ni-Pt/H2O/K2CO3; Ca]

(4*) R.T. Bush and D.R. Eagleton, "Evidence for Electrolytically Induced Transmutation and Radioactivity Correlated with Excess Heat in Electrolytic Cells with Light Water Rubidium Salt Electrolytes", Trans. Fusion Technol. 26. 344 ‑ 354 (1994). [Ni‑Pt/H2O/RbCO3; Sr]

(5*) KG. Campari,  S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano., F. Piantelli. E. Porcu, E. Tosti and S. Veronesi. "Ni‑H Systemh Proc. ICCF8 pp. 69 ‑ 71 (2000). [Ni/H2; F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn]

(6*) D. Chicea, "On New Elements on Cathode Surface after Hydrogen Isotopes Absorptionh‑Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Proc. ICCF9) (2002, Peking. China), pp.53‑56 (2003). [Ti, Pd//H2O/Li2SO4; C, Si, Cu & Pd; C].

(7*) J. Dash. G. Noble and D. Diman, "Changes in Surface Topography and Microcomposition of a Palladium Cathode caused by Electrolysis in Acidific Light Water,h Cold, Fusion Source Book (Proceedings of International Conference on Cold Fusion and. Advanced Energy Sources, Minsk, Belarus) pp. 172 ‑ 180 (1994). [Pg-Pt/H2O/H2SO4, Cl, Ag]

(8*) J. Dash. G. Noble and D. Diman. "Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes after Electrolysis in Acidified Light and Heavy Water; Correlation with Excess Heat, Trans. Fusion. Technol. 26. 299 ‑ 306 (1994) [Pd-Pt/H2SO4: Au, Ag]

(9*) J. Dufour, D. Murat, X. Dufour and J. Foos, "Hydrix Catalysed Transmutation of Uranium and Palladium: Experimental Part,h Proc. ICCF8 pp. 153 ‑ 158 (2000). [Pd; Mg, Al, Cr, Fe, Zn]

(10*) T. Hanawa, gX‑ray Spectrometric Analysis of Carbon Arc Products in Waterh Proc. ICCF8, pp. 147 ‑ 152 (2000). [C‑C/H2O; Fe, Si, Ni, Al, Cl, Mn]

(11*) Y. lwamura, T. Itoh, N. Gotoh, M. Sakano, I. Toyoda and H. Sakata, "Detection of Anomalous Elements, X‑Ray and Excess Heat induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium through Multi‑Layer Cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd)" Proc. ICCF7, pp.167 ‑ 171 (1998).[Pd//LiOD; Ni, Fe]

(12*) Y. lwamura, T. Itoh and M. Sakano, "Nuclear Products and Their Time Dependence induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium through Multi‑Layer Palladium Containing Low Work Function Materialh Proc. ICCF8, pp.141 ‑ 146 (2000).[Pd/D2: Mg, Si, S, F, Al]

(13*) Y‑ lwamura, M. Sakano and T. Itch, "Elemental Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Penetrationh Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 41, 4642 ‑ 4650 (2002). [Pd/D2; Mg, Si, S, F, Al, Fe]

(14*) Y. Iwamura, T. Itoh, M. Sakano and S. Sakai. "Observation of low Energy Nuclear Reactions induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Pd Complexesh Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, (Proc. ICCF9) (2002, Poking, China), pp.141-146 (2003). And also Y. lwamura et al. Jpn. J, Appl. Phys. 41, 4642‑4650 (2002). [Pd (Cs, Sr)/D2; Pr, Mo]

(15*) A.B. Karabut, YM, Kucherov and I.B. Savvatimova, gPossible Nuclear Reactions Mechanisms at Glow Discharge in Deuterium" Proc. ICCF3, pp.165 ‑ 168 (1993). [Pd/D2; Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ge, Br, Sr, Mo in 1 ʂ surface layer]

(16*) R. Kopecek arid J. Dash, gExcess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodesh Proc. 2nd  Low Energy Nuclear Conference, College Station, Texas, pp. 46 ‑ 53 (1996).[Ti­-Pt//H2SO4; V, Cr]

(17*) X.Z. Li. S.X. Zheng, G.S. Huang, WZ. Yu, "New Measurements of Excess Heat in a Gas‑Loaded D/Pd Systemh Proc. ICCF7, pp. 197 ‑ 201 (1998). [Pd/D2: Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Sr]

(18*) X.Z. Li, Y.J. Yan, J. Tian, M.Y. Mei, Y. Deng, W.Z. Yu, G.Y. Tang, and D.X. Cao, gNuclear Transmutation in Pd Deuterideh Proc. ICCF8, pp. 123 ‑ 128 (1998). [Pd‑Pt/D2O/?; Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn]

(19*) G.H. Miley, G. Narne, M.J. Williams. J.A. Patterson, J. Nix, D. Cravens and H. Hora. "Quantitative Observation of Transmutation Products. Occurring in Thin-Film Coated Microspheres during Electrolysish Proc. ICCF6. pp. 629 ‑ 644 (1996) [Ni,Pd/H2O//LiSO4; Al, Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, Ag]

(20*) G.H. Miley, gProduct Characteristics and Energetics in Thin‑Film Electrolysis Experiments", Proc. ICCF7, pp. 241 ‑ 246 (.1998). And also G.H. Miley and J.A. Patterson. J. New Energy, 1-3, 5 ‑ 30 (1996). [Ni,Pd,Ti‑Pt/H2O/LiSO4: A=22‑23. 50-80, 103-120, 200-210]

(21*) T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi. M. Kitaichi anti K. Kurokawa, gExcess Heat Evolution and Analysis of Elements for Solid State Electrolyte in Deuterium Atmosphere during Applied Electric Fieldh J. New Energy 1‑1. 79 ‑ 86 (1995). [Sr,Ce,Y,Nb,O/D2: Pt, Cu, Cr, Pd, Zn, Br, Xe, Cd, Hf, Re, Ir, Pb]

(22*) T. Mizuno, T, Ohmori and M. Enyo, "Isotopic Changes of the Reaction Products induced by Cathodic Electrolysis in Pdh J. New Energy 1‑3. 31 ‑15 (1996). [Pd-Pt/D2O/LiOH; C, O, S, Cl, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Sn, Pt, Hg, Pb]

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(36*) R. Sundaresan and J. OfM. Bockris, "Anomalous Reactions during Arcing between Carbon Rods in Water," Fusion Technol. 26, 261 ‑ 265 (1994). [C‑C/H2O; Fe]

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(38*) H. Yamada. H. Nonaka, A. Dohi, H. Hirahara, T. Fujihara, X. Li and A. Chiba, gCarbon Production on Palladium Point Electrode with Neutron Burst under DC Glow Discharge in Pressurized Deuterium Gash Proc. ICCF6, pp. 610 ‑ 614 (1996). [Pd/D2; C]

(39*) H. Yamada, S. Narita, Y. Fujii, T. Sato. S. Sasaki and T. Ohmori, gProduction of Ba and Several Anomalous Elements in Pd under Light Water Electrolysis," Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Proc. ICCF9) (2002, Peking, China), pp.420­-423 (2003). [Pd‑Pt/H2O/Na2SO4; Li, B, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Cr. Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb].

 



* This work is supported by a grant from the New York Community Trust and by the Professional Development Fund for part‑time faculty of Portland State University.

On leave from Cold Fusion Research Laboratory, Yatsu 597‑16, Shizuoka. Shizuoka 421‑1202, Japan. E mail: cf-lab.kozima@nifty.ne.jp,

 Website: http://www.geocities.jp/hjrfq930/