CFRL English News No. 51 (2003. 8. 10)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory (Japan) Dr. Hideo Kozima, Director
E-mail address; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Back numbers of this News are posted on the above Website)
CFP (Cold Fusion Phenomenon) stands for gnuclear reactions and accompanying events occurring in solids with high densities of hydrogen isotopes (H and/or D) in ambient radiation.h
This is the CFRL News (in English) No. 51 for Cold Fusion researchers published by Dr. H. Kozima, now at the Physics Department and Low Energy Nuclear Laboratory, Portland State University, Oregon, USA.
This issue contains following item:
1. gStability Effect,h a rule in CFP.
1. gStability Effect,h a rule in CFP.
I have found a rule gStability Effecth in the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), i.e. nuclear reactions and accompanying events occurring in solids with high densities of hydrogen isotopes (H and/or D) in ambient radiation.
The rule, gstability effect,h shows that production of a nuclide by nuclear transmutations in CFP occurs with a frequency (probability) proportional to its stability. This characteristic of nuclear transmutation has been noticed for a long time by researchers but not formulated in this form using statistical data.
This is, perhaps, the first rule found in CFP since 1989.
Explanation of the gStability Effect.h
The two figures are attached to this mail in PDF file. In these figures (Z between 3 and 38 and larger than 38), there are plots of two data sets as functions of the atomic number Z obtained in two entirely different fields of science, astrophysics and solid state-nuclear physics (SSNP) including CFP.
The data set in astrophysics is the abundance of elements in the universe (proportional to their stability) in logarithmic scale (log H) compiled by Suess and Urey (Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 28. pp.53-74 (1956).
The data set in SSNP is the frequency N of observations of elements (with atomic numbers larger than 3) in CF experiments. The frequency N of an element is simply counted the number of papers (from about 40 data sets in CFP) reporting detection of the element (total number plot).
There is clear coincidence between log H and N (let us call it gStability Effecth) except several elements at Z = 7 (N), 8 (O), 10 (Ne), 18 (Ar), 36 (Kr), 40 (Zr) and 47 (Ag).
The discrepancies except at Z = 40 and 47 are explained by technical problems to observe these elements. That at Z = 47 (Ag) has a special cause: Ag is produced from Pd by nuclear transmutation by decay, which does not exist in processes in the stars, as explained before (H. Kozima, gDiscovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon,h Ohtake Shuppan, Tokyo, 1998. Cited as gDiscoveryh in the following). The discrepancy at Z = 40 (Zr) is only one case we have no idea to explain it at present.
If we use a weighted number by measured amount of an element to count N (total amount plot) instead of the total number plot, the correspondence of log H and N is surely improved quantitatively.
Observations of elements with Z = 1 (tritium) and 2 (helium) are reported very often but are not included in this analysis. They have their special causes do not exist in the stars as discussed already (gDiscoveryh, Fusion Technol. Vol.33, pp.52-62 (1998), and J. New Energy, Vol.5-1, 68-80 (2000)).
Meaning of the gStability Effect.h
Therefore, the stability effect holds good, at least qualitatively, suggesting something in CFP. It is certain that this rule has its bases in the atomic processes in SSNP.
Detailed explanation of the stability effect will be given at ICCF10, if they give me a chance to discuss it on Monday (8/25) or Tuesday (8/26) when I can attend, due to my departure US for Japan.
CFRL website: http://web.pdx.edu/~pdx00210/
ICCF10 website: http://iccf10.org/