CFRL English News No. 46 (2003. 1. 15)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory (Japan) Dr. Hideo Kozima, Director
E-mail address; firstname.lastname@example.org
(Back numbers of this News are posted on the above Website)
This is the CFRL News (in English) No. 46 for Cold Fusion researchers published by Dr. H. Kozima, now at the Physics Department and Low Energy Nuclear Laboratory, Portland State University, Oregon, USA.
CFP (Cold Fusion Phenomenon) stands for ügnuclear reactions and accompanying events occurring in solids with high densities of hydrogen isotopes (H and/or D) in ambient radiation.üh
This issue contains following items:
1) Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Beam-Solid Interaction
2) ügNon-Thermonuclear Fusionüh Meeting in Tokyo (Jan. 31, 2003)
3) Abstracts of a paper by H. Ikegami and R. Pettersson, ügEvidence of Enhanced Nonthermal Nuclear Fusionüh Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry, Uppsala University, September 2002.
éPüD Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Beam-Solid Interaction
Since Fleischmann and Ponsüfs paper on the production of excess heat accompanied with tritium and/or neutron generation in 1989, there appeared many papers on the Cold Fusion Phenomenon (CFP). Experimental systems used in them are divided into two groups: (1) Occlusion of hydrogen isotopes (H and/or D) in transition metals Pd, Ni and Ti by electrolytic, discharge, or gas contact experiments, (2) Implantation of hydrogen isotopes into samples by irradiation of low energy deuteron or proton beams at below about 100 keV. In the Proceeding of ICCF8, there is a Chapter 6. Experiments with Stimulation to show this situation.
Physical difference between two systems may be explained as follows. A number of atoms and molecules composing a solid are partially disintegrated into ions and electrons in solids. To treat this many-body system quantum mechanically, it is necessary to use some approximate approach. A fundamental approximation used in solid state physics is the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation where ion coordinates are assumed as parameters in the calculation of electron wave functions. A justification of this approximation is given by the difference of electron and ion velocities of a factor more than 50 at their thermal equilibrium.
In the two kinds of systems used in experiments of CFP, the B-O approximation is applicable to (1) but not to (2) where thermal equilibrium is not expected to exist. It is true that CFP serves as a probe for solid state-nuclear physics but the two systems (1) and (2) should be considered fairly different probes*.
In the next article, there is an announcement of a Meeting on ügNon-Thermonuclear Fusionüh different from the usual fusion researches using high temperature plasmas to realize thermonuclear fusion. In the program of the Meeting, there are themes belonging to the above classification (2) somewhat different from the fundamental cold fusion system (1). It should be noticed that experimental data obtained by a research group is not necessarily consistent with their interpretation as the paper by Fleischmann et al.  was such an example as theoretical explanation  consistent with other data sets had shown.
 M. Fleischmann, S. Pons and M. Hawkins, "Electrochemically induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium", J. Electroanal. Chem. 261, 301 (1989). [339, 349]
 H. Kozima, S. Watanabe, K. Hiroe, M. Nomura, M. Ohta and K. Kaki, "Analysis of Cold Fusion Experiments Generating Excess Heat, Tritium and Helium", J. Electroanal. Chem. 425, 173 (1997) and 445, 223 (1998).
2. ügNon-Thermonuclear Fusionüh Meeting in Tokyo (Jan. 31, 2003)
ü@A News Letter of JCF ühJCFmail00087üh reported a Meeting of JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) on ügNon-thermonuclear Fusionüh as posted by JSPS as follows.
Following Meeting on ügNon-thermonuclear Fusionüh will be held as follows co-sponsored by 145th Committee (Crystal Processing and Evaluation Technique) and 141 Committee (Micro-Beam Analysis) of JSPS.
This meeting will be held inviting Dr. H. Ikegami, Professor Emeritus at Osaka University and now at Uppsala University, as a Lecturer on ügNon-thermonuclear Fusion Reactionüh. Dr. Ikegami has observed recently a remarkable nuclear fusion reaction when protons or deuterons with energies at about 25 keV are implanted into liquid Li and this reaction is considered as a result of resonance of nuclear and chemical reactions totally different from the nuclear fusion reaction known by now. This observation has close relations with ion implantation into solids and surface phenomena and also is expected to have possible relation with industrial application. To make this observation popular, we planned to hold a meeting as follows.
Time and Date: January 31, 2003 (Friday), 13:30 – 17:30
Place:üF Kosai Kaikan Building, 4th Floor, Room Kaede (JR Chuou Line, Yotsuya Station, 5 min. on foot. TEL 03-5276-0333
(Chair: Dr. T. Minamisono, Osaka Univ.)
éPüDIntroductory talk, Dr. K. Kohra, Professor Emeritus at Tokyo Univ.
éQüDühAcceleration of Li + d Fusion Reaction in Liquid Liüh (80 min.) H. Ikegami, Uppsala Univ.
3. Comment (15 min.) M. Kawai, Professor Emeritus at Kyushu Univ.
éSüDühPhysics of Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Condensed Mattersüh (40 min.) A. Takahashi, Osaka Univ.
éTüDühAbnormal Increase of Deuteron Density and Rate of Fusion Reaction in Solid implanted with Deuteronüh (30 min.) A. Kitamura, Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine
éUüDühNuclear Fusion in Solid Metals: Is Metal a Special Environment for Nuclear Reactionsüh J. Kasagi, Tohoku Univ.
(Translated into English by H. K.)
For readerüfs convenience, I have cited below most recent papers of the above lecturers below. For the paper by H. Ikegami, abstracts of papers included in the Bulletin (see below) are cited in the next item. I would like to express my thanks to Dr. K. Hasegawa (Professor Emeritus at Shizuoka University) for his kindness sending me a copy of the paper by H. Ikegami appeared as a Bulletin of Uppsala University..
2*üDHidetsugu Ikegami and Roland Pettersson, ügEvidence of Enhanced Nonthermal Nuclear Fusionüh Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry, Uppsala University, September 2002.
4*. A. Takahashi, K. Maruta, K. Ochiai and H. Miyamaru, "Detection of Three-Body Deuteron Fusion in Titanium Deuteride under the Stimulation by a Deuteron Beam", Phys. Letters 255A, 89 (1999).
5*. N. Kubota, A. Taniike and A. Kitamura, ügProduction of High Energy Charged Particles during Deuteron Implantation of Titanium Deuteridesüh Conference Proceedings 70 (Proc. ICCF8, May 21 – 26, 2000, Lerici, Italy) p.311.
6*. J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Baba and T. Noda, ügLow Energy Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Solidsüh Conference Proceedings 70 (Proc. ICCF8, May 21 – 26, 2000, Lerici, Italy) p.305.
3*üDDr. M. Kawai who will give a comment after the talk by H. Ikegami is a theoretical nuclear physicist who has worked in the low energy nuclear reactions.
3üDH. Ikegami and R. Pettersson, ügEvidence of Enhanced Nonthermal Nuclear Fusionüh Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry, Uppsala University, September 2002. Preface and Abstracts.
In this Bulletin, there are Preface of publishersüiüiéPüjPrefaceüj and three papers by H. Ikegami and his collaborator (2), (3) and (4). In this article, there are the Preface and three Abstracts of the papers.
(1). Preface (to the Bulletin, September 2002) By Karin Markides and Sven Kullander
In this bulletin a new nuclear fusion scheme is presented. Deuterium ions of about 25 keV energy are incident on a Li target operated at temperatures just above the melting point. The detected event rate of around a thousand per second corresponds to an enormous enhancement between 1015 – 1010 as compared to what is expected for deuterium ions interacting with free Li atoms.
The fusion reaction events are defined by energetic particles escaping from the Li surface and detected in a solid state Si detector which is monitored by 5.3 MeV alpha particles from an americium source. The presumed alpha particles have energies up to three times the energies of the reference americium alphas.
These experimental findings can be explained by a theory where several new concepts and mechanisms such as, buffer energy, adiabatic transition (quantum mechanical resonance) between atomic fusion and nuclear fusion, fusion reactions enhanced by the thermodynamic force and so on have been introduced.
Explanations of the new concepts and interpretations of present experimental results based on these concepts are beyond the scope of a paper in usual academic journals. With considerations of the state of affairs, all results on the new fusion scheme are published as the three‑in‑a‑set papers in the Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry, Uppsala University, September 2002 which can be found at internet. We hope that this publication will stimulate continued works in order to better understand the enhanced fusion rate. We would also welcome any comments or criticism.
(2) 1. Buffer Energy Nuclear Fusion
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6092‑6098 (2001)
A compact scheme of non‑thermonuclear fusion is presented. Hydrogen ions are implanted directly from nonthermal discharge plasma or ion source into a surface of liquid Li metal at a buffer energy of a few tens keV where nuclear stopping occurs. The ions interact with Li atoms or mixed element atoms which are not being internally excited and tend towards the formation of united atoms at the minimum Gibbs free energy point. This leads to the enhanced rate of non‑thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen ions due to cohesion in the liquid metal
(3) 2. Recoilless Nonthermal Nuclear Fusion
Hidetsugu lkegami* and Roland Pettersson
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 531, S‑75121 Uppsala, Sweden
The effect of thermodynamic force on the nuclear fusion with protons of 10 keV energy was observed in metallic Li liquids exhibiting an enhancement of rate by a factor of about 104 in spite of quenching due to nuclear recoil. In an improved reaction scheme, deuterons are implanted into a Li liquid at an energy of several tens keV. They tend to the recoilless proton transfer nuclear fusion without electronic excitation and inner shell ionization of liquid atoms via enhanced atomic fusion, that is, united atoms formation which induces the momentum matched 7Li(d, n)8Be* üĘ.24He reaction. An enhancement of some 13 orders of magnitude is expected without quenching. Monochromatic intermediate neutrons produced are absorbed in the Li liquid releasing additional energy through the reactions, 7Li(n, â┴â└)8Be*üĘ24He and 6Li(n, â┴)7Li. The scheme also provides new monochromatic intermediate neutron and gamma‑ray sources.
(4) 3. Evidence of Enhanced Nonthermal Nuclear Fusion
Hidetsugu lkegami and Roland Pettersson
The 7Li (d, nâ┐)4He reaction has been studied with 10 – 24 keV deuterons implanted on metallic Li. Alpha‑particles were measured using a solid state detector and neutrons by a BF3 counter. When the Li target was in the solid phase, no single event was observed as inferred from known reaction cross‑section data. Using metallic Li in the liquid phase we observed a rate enhancement by a factor of 1015 – 1010. This enhancement is explained by united atoms LiD formation enhanced by the thermodynamic force in metallic Li liquids, which induces adiabatically the recoilless 7Li(d, n)8Be*üĘ24He reaction.