CFRL English News No.7 (December 10, 1999)

 Cold Fusion Research Laboratory      Prof. Hideo Kozima

   This is CFRL News (in English) No.7 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima.

  In this issue, there is following items.

1)   Synopsis of a paper to be published in Il Nuovo Cimento,

2)   Referee’s comment on the above paper,

3)   About a paper on the biotransmutation submitted to Radiological Science (in Japanese),

4)   Six papers submitted to ICCF8,

5)   Ambient neutrons measured in Japan,

6)   About “Hikosaka model” of nuclear shell structure (1935).


1)   Our paper

H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Fujii, K. Arai, H. Kudoh and K. Kaki, “Analysis of Energy Spectrum of Neutrons in Cold Fusion Experiments on the TNCF Model” (Il Nuovo Cimento to be published)

accepted by Il Nuovo Cimento explains neutron spectrum observed in some gas loading system. The synopsis of the paper is:


 The energy spectra of neutrons in the cold fusion phenomenon measured by Bressani et al. in Ti/D gas loading system were analyzed with the TNCF model proposed by one of the authors (H. Kozima). The result shows that the data of positive results are interpreted consistently with a value of the adjustable parameter n_{n} = 10^{4} ~10^{7} cm ^{-3}. These values of n_{n} are in the smallest range of values determined hitherto in various materials used in the cold fusion experiments with positive results. Possible cause of the small value of the parameter n_{n} is discussed taking into consideration the characteristics of the sample.


2) It is interesting to cite here the referee’s comment on the above paper to be published in Il Nuovo Cimento. The judgment expressed in the comment is on the traditional line of the modern science developed in these 400 years started in Italy at the time of G. Galilei when scientific activity were performed only by pure scientists.

The paper reports on the application of the TNCF (Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Fusion ) model to the analysis of neutron spectra measured in some gas loading Cold Fusion experiments. The analysis shows that the data are reasonably well reproduced. The main objection is that the starting hypothesis of the model can be questioned. However all theories or models trying to explain the complex and puzzling phenomenology of Cold Fusion must, by definition, start from an unconventional hypothesis. In this sense the starting hypothesis of Kozima is among the “more acceptable” ones. It is demonstrated by the fact that other applications of the TNCF model were already published in the past few years by some refereed physics journals.”

(Italicization is by quoter.) 

Following this sentence, there are claims for inappropriate English expressions should be improved and mistakes in reaction formula should be corrected. The former is not remedied instantly but the latter should be corrected as the inappropriate notations like A(e)+B = C + D + e are really misreading.


3) An article “Present status of Cold Fusion Research” has been published in Radiological Sciences Nos. 10 and 11 (1999) (in Japanese) as reported in the former issue of this News. I have submitted a new article “Wonder of Biotransmutation” to the same journal inspired by a report of “11th General Meeting of International Radiation Research Association” by Dr. Y. Shimada appeared in this journal No. 10.

 Dr. Shimada wrote “Induction of hereditary instability by and bystander effect and adaptation response of radiation have been recognized clearly in this Meeting. These phenomena gave me an impression that the conventional approach to low level dose by extrapolation from high level dose is not always applicable.” (Translated underlined by quoter.)

This impression of Dr. Shimada has similarity to TNCF explanation of Biotransmutation given in my book Discovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon published last year. Unfortunately, the editor of the journal did not accept my article considering the Biotransmutation is not appropriate for the Sciences.


4) We have submitted six papers to ICCF8 as follows:

1. Kozima, M., Ohta, M., Arai, K., Fujii, M, Kudoh, H. and Yoshimoto, K., “TNCF model (1) - Explanation of Excess Heat in CF Phenomenon”

2. Kozima, H., Ohta, M., Kudoh, H., Arai, K., and Fujii, M., “TNCF model (2) - Explanation of Tritium Data in CF Phenomenon”

3. Kozima, H., Kudoh, H., Fujii, M. and Arai, K., “TNCF model (3) - Explanation of Helium Data in CF Phenomenon”

4. Kozima, H., Fujii, M., Ohta, M., Arai, K. and Kudoh, H., “TNCF model (4) - Explanation of Neutron Emission in CF Phenomenon”

5. Kozima, H., Arai, K., Fujii, M., Kudoh, H. and Yoshimoto, K., “TNCF model (5) - Explanation of Nuclear Transmutation in Solids”

6. Kozima, H., “The Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Physics of Neutrons in Solids”


5) About environmental neutron density in Japan

We have noticed importance of the environmental neutrons in the CF experiments and proposed the TNCF model based on the quasi-stable existence of thermal neutrons in materials (trapped neutrons). In the explanation of the model, initial source of the trapped neutrons has been explained as the environmental neutrons using data written in Nature 338p.711(1989) by J.M. Carpenter of the Argonne National Laboratory.

Recently, I have read a report of a Summer School on “Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation” held in Kanazawa Univ. where was reported about a neutron detector developed by Prof. K. Komura.

Prof. Komura of Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL), Kanazawa Univ. kindly informed me his data of environmental neutron levels in Japan measured by his detector using ^{197} Ag to catch thermal neutrons. In short, his data is consistent with the data given by Dr. Carpenter and our explanations given hitherto need not alteration. His detector has been, also, used effectively in JCO accident occurred on September 30 in Tsukuba, Japan.

 An underground laboratory in Ogoya constructed in a tunnel (135 m deep) of former copper mine is used to investigate low level environmental radioactivity for common use of researchers in Japan and in world. It is said that the Ogoya lab with low background radioactivity is suited for investigation of environmental radioactivity.

“Considering accessibility and low radon activity, which are essential in the low level measurement of environmental radioactivity, Ogoya laboratory is believed to be superior to deeper underground facilities, which requires long access time, though cosmic ray contribution in Ogoya is much higher than much deeper underground facilities. (K. Komura, Proc. 1997 Intern. Symp. On Environmental Radiation, (Oct. 20, 1997, Fukui, Japan), p.56.)

   We may have an opportunity to use this laboratory for CF experiments.


6) On the Hikosaka model of nucleus and Originality of Scientific Research

 An article “Nuclear Theory Too Early To Be Recognized Its Value” is published in a book titled “20th Century, Its Characteristics - Idea and Science” (Yomiuri Press, in Japanese).

The story is as follows. Dr. T. Hikosaka19021989proposed a nuclear model in 1935 similar to the one proposed by M.G. Mayer and J.H.D. Jensen, independently, later in 1947 who were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1963. The writer of the article discusses the work by T. Hikosaka was too early to be recognized as a theory with reality contributing progress of nuclear science.

Mr. N. Yabuuchi of High Scientific Research Laboratory, interested in the originality of Japanese scientists, copied a following paper by T. Hikosaka and sent me.

 Hikosaka, T., “Quantenstufen der Neutronen im KerneScience Reports of Tohoku Imperial University, Vol. 24, p. 208 (1935).

Reading this paper, it has become clear that the paper is a compilation of several short reports written in 1934 in Japanese. So, the idea written in this paper had first expressed in 1934 by a Japanese physicist, an assistant researcher in Tohoku Imperial University.

To know exact situation of the time the Hikosaka model was proposed, I have read a book by G. Gamow, Structure of Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Transmutations, Oxford, 1937. In Chapter II, Section 4 of this book, there are descriptions about nuclear model after the discovery of neutron in 1932 by Chadwick. An interesting fact is that W.M. Elsasser had given a criterion for the individual existence of alpha particles in 1934 (J. de Phys. 5, 71). Gamow says, “We must thus conclude that, according to this criterion, alpha particles do not exist as individual constituent parts of complex nucleus.”

 The Hikosaka model, however, is just based on the individual existence of alpha particles in complex nucleus; he assumes a nucleus composed of several alpha particles and several neutrons, interacting only with alpha particles. If the paper by T. Hikosaka had been submitted to some international journal, the presumption of the model could not obtain recognition of the editor.

 The Shell Model proposed by Mayer and Jensen in 1947 is independent of this assumption and should not be compared with the Hikosaka model. Journalistic description becomes sometimes superficial and sensational just to sell many. We have also had recently such an example of this type as G. Taubes’s book on CF phenomenon.