Father: John Fuller
Spouse-1: Sarah Dunkhorne - b: ~1551 - d: Jun/1584
- bur: 1/Jul/1584 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
m: 29/Jan/1572(1573) - Starston Par., Co. Norfolk, England
Child-1: Thomas - bp: 13/Dec/1573 - Redenhall Par., Co.
bur: 30/May/1659 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
m: Anne *****
3: Ann - bp: 22/Apr/1577 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
m: William White - 11/Feb/1612 - Leiden, Holland
4: John - bp: 15/Mar/1578(1579) - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
bur: 22/Dec/1608 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
m: Anne ***** - m: Margaret Balls - 19/Apr/1599 - Starston Par., Co. Norfolk, England
6: Robert - bp: 22/Oct/1581 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
7: Edmund - bp: 19/May/1583 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
bur: 19/Aug/1584 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
Spouse-2: Frances Blackwell? - d: 28/Mar/1632 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
Child-1: Sarah - bp: 4/Sep/1586 - Redenhall Par., Co.
Norfolk, England - d: ~1610
m: James Spalding - 26/Nov/1607 - Denton Par., Co. Norfolk, England
2: Christopher - bp: 15/Dec/1588 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
bur: 12/Jul/1590 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
3: Elizabeth - bp: 29/Nov/1590 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
4: Mary - bp: 13/Jul/1595 - Redenhall Par., Co. Norfolk, England
Robert Fuller is believed to have been the son of John Fuller and was probably born in Redenhall Parish, County Norfolk, England, perhaps, in September or October of 1543. (Some secondary sources indicate October 6th as his date of birth, but this almost certainly would have been a baptismal date.) The name of his mother is not definitively known, although she has been reported as Ann Collinge, but supporting evidence seems quite insufficient. Even so, parish records affirm that Robert Fuller and Sarah Dunkhorne were married in Starston Parish, County Norfolk, on January 29, 1572 (1573 N. S.). Seven children can be attributed to them with some confidence, five of whom seem to have survived into adulthood.1 Parish burial records indicate that Sarah Dunkhorne Fuller must have died about midsummer in 1584. Subsequently, Robert married again, perhaps, the following year to a Frances whose maiden name may have been Blackwell, but this has not been established with any confidence. It is believed that they had at least four children of which three survived beyond childhood. The situation is further confused because two men named Robert Fuller, one a butcher and the other a tanner, lived contemporaneously in the same locality, both having children baptized at Redenhall Parish.2 Of course, it is likely that this was no accident and that these two men were part of the same extended family and, thus, relatives. However, nothing definite is known. Unfortunately, this has quite naturally caused confusion of identities and conflation of pedigrees. Within this context, it has been suggested by some researchers that John Fuller, son of Robert and Sarah Dunkhorne Fuller, died as a young child in 1580 and that they had a second son, John, baptized on March 25, 1582, who survived. Moreover, a burial record of John Fuller in Redenhall Parish on February 10, 1580 (1581 N. S.) is commonly cited in support of this. However, this presumption conflicts chronologically with the birth of a son, Robert, a mere five or six months earlier in September or October of 1581. To remedy this, one might suppose that there has been confusion between old style and new style dates and that the year of John's christening should have been given as 1583, but this similarly conflicts with the birth of son, Edmund, the following April or May. Therefore, it seems probable that no second son, John, should be attributed to Robert and Sarah Fuller and, furthermore, that their son John did not die in 1580, i.e., the putative burial record refers to someone else. Likewise, their daughter, Ann, is commonly identified with Susanna, wife of William White, both of whom were passengers on the first voyage of the "Mayflower". Indeed, this is supported by contemporary Dutch civil records that affirm the marriage of Ann Fuller and William White on February 11, 1612 N. S. Indeed, Samuel Fuller was a witness to this marriage, which would strongly support the presumption that Ann was his sister. However, Susanna White, who married Edward Winslow in 1621 after the death of her first husband, had a son, Josiah, born about 1628 and a daughter, Elizabeth, born as late as 1630. This implies that if she was born in 1577, then she would have been fifty-two or fifty-three years old at the birth of this last child. To say the least, such an occurrence would be noteworthy even at the present day and would have been exceedingly rare and quite nearly miraculous in seventeenth century New England. Moreover, recent scholarship has established that there were at least two men named William White living at Leiden in the period between 1610 and 1620. Therefore the husband of Ann Fuller was probably not the immigrant. To remedy this problem of chronology, it has been proposed that Robert Fuller and his second wife, Frances, had a daughter, Susanna born about 1593 or 1594 and that she was the wife of William White, the Pilgrim. However, there seems to be no documentary evidence to support such a hypothesis. Additional children, Valentine, Alan, Priscilla, and Rose as well as two more sons named Thomas have been attributed to Robert Fuller by various researchers. It is probable that all of these are either misattributed or spurious. In any case, Robert Fuller of Redenhall, yeoman and butcher, has been traditionally identified as the father of the Pilgrims, Edward and Samuel Fuller.Source Notes and Citations:
It would seem from the provisions of his will made on May 19, 1614, that in the first and second decades of the seventeenth century Robert Fuller of Redenhall was quite prosperous and owned considerable property.3 Moreover, in the will he specifically mentioned his wife, Frances; living sons, Thomas, Edward, and Samuel; and daughters, Ann, Elizabeth, and Mary. In addition, he mentioned a grandson, John, who was evidently the son of son, John, apparently deceased. Of these seven children, two unmarried daughters, Elizabeth and Mary, can be attributed to Robert's second wife, Frances, and the rest to his first wife, Sarah. Furthermore, it would seem that both Thomas and Edward must have been resident locally, since they received bequests of property as well as money, but Samuel appears to have been living elsewhere since he received only money. Alternatively, Samuel was the third surviving son, hence this arrangement may simply reflect the usual custom of primogeniture and nothing more. However, the fact that Samuel was not one of the four children included in the division of goods is probably significant and a strong indication that he really was living elsewhere, viz., Holland. The will was proved by Robert Fuller's widow, Frances, on May 31, 1614, which implies that he must have died the same month, probably a short time after the will was made. Nothing specific is known regarding his religious sentiments, although in 1588 the name of Robert Fuller, "bocher", i.e., butcher, appeared on a list of subscribers for the sixth bell in the chimes of the parish church at Redenhall.4 Even so, it is a plausible presumption that he was a Puritan or even a Puritan Separatist. Indeed, the region of East Anglia, including the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, was a stronghold of Puritanism from the late sixteenth century onward. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that Robert Fuller ever left England.
1. Francis H. Fuller, "Fullers of Redenhall, England" in New England Genealogical and Historical Register, Vol. 55, pgs. 410-4, 1901.
"ROBERT FULLER, of Redenhall, England, who in the beginning of the seventeenth century, lived in comfortable circumstances, with his wife and some six or eight children, sons and daughters, for whom he provided amply at his death according to his will which was dated May 19, 1614, and proved May 31 of that year, the inventory being filed by his son Thomas, June 16, 1614. He names his wife, Frances; son, Thomas, 'eldest;' sons, Edward and Samuel; daughters, Ann and Elizabeth; and 'Mary Fuller, my daughter;' all legacies to be paid by son Thomas, and the rest of the estate divided, one-half to wife, Frances, and one-half between his four children, Edward, Ann, Elizabeth, and Mary. His grandson, John, 'son of my son John' to receive his portion when of age. Wife, Frances, and son, Thomas, executors."
"The baptismal dates of his children were found on the Parish Register at Redenhall, Norfolk, England, as follows:
I--Thomas, bapt. Dec. 13, 1573.
II--EDWARD, bapt. Sept. 4, 1575.
III--Ann (Susanna), bapt. Apr. 22, 1577; m. (first) William White, and with him was a passenger on the Mayflower, and the mother of Peregrine White, born while the ship lay at anchor in Cape Cod harbor. William White died in the 'first sickness' not long after landing and his widow married (second) Governor Winslow.
IV--JOHN, bapt. Mar. 15, 1578; d. 1608; m. Margaret Balls, by whom he had:
1--John, bapt. Apr. 25, 1602.
2--MATTHEW, bapt. Oct. 16, 1603. (See following.)
3--William, bapt. June 30, 1609, born after the death of his father.
V--Samuel, bapt. Jan. 20, 1580. Mayflower Pilgrim and beloved physician of Plymouth colony.
VI--Robert, bapt. Oct. 22, 1581.
VII--Edmund, bapt. May 19, 1583." Here, Matthew Fuller, who later emigrated to New England and settled at Barnstable, has been attributed as the son of John Fuller. However, more recent research has established that he was almost certainly the son of Edward Fuller. Likewise, Ann Fuller cannot be identified as a passenger on the "Mayflower" and, subsequently, as the wife of Edward Winslow.
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2. "Robert was mentioned in the 1559 will of his father, wherein he is given money and his brother, John, land. There were two Robert Fullers in Redenhall at the same time and, of about the same age. Between 1573 and 1595, twenty-two years, seventeen children were born to one or the other of the Roberts. There were two Anns, two Thomases, one Samuel (born to Robert the Butcher), Edmund, also born to Robert the Butcher and an Edward, born only to 'Robert Fuller.'" (Jane Fox; database - :2683459; worldconnect.genealogy.rootsweb.com, 2003.)
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3. In the name of god amen the nyntenth daye of Maye in the yere of our Lord god 1614 & in the twelfe yere of the Raigne of or souaigne Lord James by the grace of god of Ingland ffrance & Ireland Kinge defender of the faith &c and of the Kinge of Scotland the xlvijth &c I Robte ffuller of the pishe (sic - parish) of Redenhall in the countye of norff & in the dioces of Norwiche yeoman beinge of whole & pfitt (sic - perfect) mynd thanks be given to almighty god for the same & all other his benifites towards me doe make & ordayne this my last will & testamt in mannr & forme followinge ffirst I comitt & comend my soule into the hands of God my most mercifull father & to Jesus Christ his onlye sonne my alone savior & redeemr & through whom I hope stedfastlie to be saved & my bodye I comitt to the earth to be buryed in Xtian (sic - Christian) buriall in decent & Christian mannr in hope of a Joyfull resurrection unto Everlastinge Life Item I give & bequeath unto ffranncis my wife all that my tenemt sometyme Assyes sett lyinge & beinge in Harlston or Redenhall wth all the howses buildings yards gardens ortchards & all the appntenncs (sic - appurtenances) therto belonginge to have & to hould all th aforesaid tenemts wth all & singular p'mises (sic - premises) & th appntenncs to the said ffranncis my wife & her assignes for & duringe her naturall life Itm I give unto ffranncis my wife one Littell orchard adioyninge (sic - adjoining) to the aforsaid tenemt houlden by coppie of court Role of the manor of Redenhall wch I latelye purchased of John Cooke all wch are nowe in the occupac~on of my sonne Lawe James Spaldinge or his assignes to hould the said orchard wtall & singuler th appntenncs to the said ffranncis & her asss (sic - assigns) for & duringe hir naturall life Likewise imediately from and after my decease she maynteyning & keepinge the aforesaid howses & buildings & evry of them & all
theother the p'misss wth ther appntenncs in good and sufficient repacons (sic - repairs) durin all the aforesaid terme & makinge no strippe wast upon any of the p'mises Itm I give unto the said ffranncis my wife evry yere duringe the tyme of her widdowhood one hunderth of good & sufficient two bond faggots to be delivred yerelye & evry yere duringe the said terme to her either at Redenhall or Harlston wher she ther shall dwell and eyther of the said places to be delivred by Thomas ffuller my sonne or his assignes & if it shall please god she take a husband then I will that the said guifte of wood to cease & to be no more payd or delivred Itm I will that Thomas ffuller my sonne shall paye yerelye & evry yere unto ffranncis my wife duringe the tyme of her widdowhood the full some of fortye Shillings of currant mony also I will that ffranncis my wife shall have the use & occupac~on of the plour (sic - parlor) chamber wth a clossett over the plour in my tenemt wherin I nowe dwell wth free egrees & regrees to the same duringe the tyme of her widdowehood & if it shall please god she marrye or take to a husband then the said gift or use of the said chamber and clossett to be voyd Also I will that Elizabeth ffuller my daughter & Mary ffuller my daughter & eyther of them shall at all tymes duringe their single life have the aforesaid Chamber with free egres & regrees to the same untill they or eyther of them shall take a husband or be marryed Always provided & my mind is that the said Elizabeth ffuller my daughter & Mary ffuller my daughter shall [not] trouble or molest ffranncis my wife by beinge wth her in the said chamber but shall quietly & peecable dwell together yf either of them shall any waye be offensive to ther said mother it shalbe in her power to put them to (?or) either of them by the said Chamber anythinge in this my said will to the contrarye not wthstandinge Item I will that ffranncis my wife shall have such pte (sic - part) of my moveable goods as shall hereafter in this my p'sent (sic - present) testamt be declared Provided that if ffranncis my wife or hir asss or any other in her name or to hir use wth her dwellinge, assent, consent or pcuremt (sic - procurement) or wthout shall make any clayme or challenge any tittle in any of my other lands or tenemts(then those wthin this my p'sent testamt I have bequeathed unto her) or to any other Lands wch either is or heretofore have byne myne wherby they that have them or shall have them shall not peacebly enioy the same then I will yt all the aforesaid gifts before given to the said ffranncis my wife (or so muche of them as is in me to give) shalbe to Thomas ffuller my sonne & his asss for & during all the aforesaid tyme before given unto the said ffranncis ... & her asss from the same & evry pte therof (or so muche as is in me to give as is aforesaid) shalbe utterlye voyd any gife to the said ffranncis in this my p'sent testamt to contrary in any wise not wthstandinge Itm I give unto Edward my sonne all that my tenemt sometyme Assies in Harlston aforesaid wth all the howses buildings yards gardens orchards & all other th appntenncs & also all such evidences & writings as to the said tenemt belongeth excepte the said copie hould orchard To have & to hould the said tenemt & all theother the p'misses wth th appntenncs(excepte before excepted) unto the said Edward his heires & asss for evr Imediatelye after the decease of ffranncis my wiffe Item I give & bequeath unto the aforesaid Edward my sonne the full some of twnetye pounds oc Lawefull Inglish mony to be payd to the said Edward or his asss wthin two whol yeres next after my decease Provided alwayes & my mynd is yt if Edward my sonne his executors Administratours & asss shall not discharge & paye all such somes of mony as I stand bounden to any for the debte of the said Edward then I will that all the gyfts before given or hereafter to be given to ye said Edward shalbe utterly voyd & of none effect to the said Edward & his heires & asss & the same shalbe & remayne to Thomas my sonne & his heires & asss for evr Any gifte before given to the said Edward his heires & asss to the contrarye not wthstandinge Item I give & bequeath unto Samwell ffuller my sonne the full some of fiftenn pounds of lawefull Inglish mony to be payd to the said Samwell or his asss wthin thre whole yeres next after my decease Item I give & bequeath unto Ann my daughter the full some of twenty pounds to be payd to the said Ann or her asss wthin fower whole yeres next after my decease Item I give and bequeath unto Elizabeth ffuller my daughter the full some of fortye pounds of like lawefull monye to be payd in mannr & forme followinge vizt wthin five whole yeres next after my decease the some of twenty pounds of Lawefull mony & the other twenty pounds wthin two whole yeres then next following Item. I give & bequeath unto Mary ffuller my daughter the full some of forty pounds of Lawefull mony to be payd in mannr & forme followinge vizt wthin six whole yeres next after my decease the some of twenty pounds of Lawefull mony of England & the other twenty pounds wthin two whole yeres next after the last recyted daye wch is within eight whole [years] next after & Imediately after my decease. Item I will yt Thomas ffuller my sonne his heirs executors or assignes shall paye & dischard (sic - discharge) or cause to be discharged all of these somes of mony before given & bequeathed in this my p'sent will & also paye & discharge or cause to be discharged one obligac~on wherein I stand bounden for the paymt of forty pounds to James Spalding my sonne Lawe wthin one yere next after my decease accordinge to the condic~on of the said obligac~on Itm I give & bequeath unto Thomas ffuller my sonne all that my tenemt & howses wch I latelye built & wherein I nowe dwell wth all the Lands pfittes (sic - profits) & Comodyties & corne ther upon growinge or whether the same be free lands or holden by Indenture or by coppie of Court Role of what mannr or mannrs soevr they be holden called or knowne by the names of Trindelhedge & Trindelhedge Bastofts & umscoorths (sic) & also one inclose wch I latly purchased of Robte Horne called by the name of Trindelyedge or by what other name or names soevr they or any of them be called or knowne lyinge or being in Redenhall & Harlston or in either of them or in any other place wheresoevr wth all the evidence escripts & writtings what soevr to them belonginge To have & to hould all the aforesaid Tenemts & Lands with all and singuler the prmisses & ther appntenncs to the said Thomas my sonne his heires & asss for evr Imediatlye after my decease except & not wthstandinge out of the foresaid gift the aforesaid Chamber over the plour wth the clossett in the aforesaid new Tenemt to be to ffranncis my wife during all the tyme that she keepeth herselfe a widdowe & if she marry the said gyfte to cease & likewise Elizabeth & Mary the same to be to them & to either of them durnige (sic - during) ther single lyfe & if they or any or either of them marrye or otherwise be offensejve to their mother in ther dwellinge ther wth her the same gyfte of the Chamber to stand voyd accordinge as before in this my Last will & testamt is expressed. Itm I will that all my goods & chattelles moveable & unmoveable of what nature & quallitie soevr shall p'sently after my decease be by three or fower of my honest neighboures seene Inventoried & prised (sic - appraised). Then I will that Thomas ffuller my sonne shalle have my great Brasse potte one great caldron one Caliuer furnished wth all the rest of my armer one Iron Barr & two hakes beinge in the chimny in the hall one framed table in the plor my carte tumbnell & plowe & harrowes wth all the furniture ther belonginge & also all such Joyce boards Rayles & Tymber as shalbe either wthin or about the said Tenemt servinge for buildinge or to be made fittinge for repacons Itm I will that for the rest of my goods & Chattelles ffranncis my wife shall have the one halfe of them and the other halfe pte I will shall be devided qually between fower of my children viz: Edward ffuller Ann ffuller Elizabeth ffuller & Mary ffuller (only excebt) all such livinge as I have wch I will & my mynd is shalbe to ffrancis my wife Elizabeth & Mary my two daughters equally devided betwest them three not wthstanding my will & mynd is that before the aforesaid goods shalbe pted that all my debtes shalbe sett downe wch I shall owe to any pson (sic - person) at the daye of my death (ecepte the forty pounds wch Thomas my sonne is to paye to James Spaldinge my sonne in Lawe as is aforesaid) & that they shal be payd out of my moveable goods as is aforesaid evry of them aloweinge out of his or their pte pportionablye (sic - proportionally) accordinge to the quantytie of ther ptes for & towards the paymt of the same & further I will that the charges wch shalbe dispended about the Christian Buryall of my bodye as also for the pvinge (sic - proving) of this my last will and testamt shalbe payd out of my moveable goods aforesaid to be borne & payd in such mannor as is aforesaid concerninge the paymt of my debtes and further I will that Thomas my sonne shall beare as great parte toward the charges aforesaid as any other that shall have any pte in my goods aforesaid pvided (sic - provided) that if any pties shall have any pte in the aforesaid goods shall refuse or fayle to paye his or ther pte for & towards the other charges aforesaid beinge sett downe how the same is payd & distributed then i will that he or they soe refusinge or faylinge as is aforesaid shall have no pte of th aforesaid goods unles they wilbe content p'sently to paye their pte as is aforesaid or to give sufficient assurance to my Executors for the paymt of the same wthin some convenient tyme after but that their pte shalbe devided betwine the other not refusinge any gifte before to the contrary not wthstandinge ffurther I will & my mynd is that when John ffuller my grandchild the sonne of John ffuller my sonne shalbe of age sufficient to be bound prentice then I will that Thomas my sonne havinge the chosinge of his maister & trad shall paye to the best settinge of him forth the some of five pounds of currant mony the said paymt to be made for the better p'fermt(sic - preferment) of the said John ffuller my grandchild either for the accomplishinge of his said trade or otherwise to be done at the discreation of the said Thomas my sonne. Itm I will & my mynd is that if Elizabeth ffuller & Mary ffuller my daughters doe depte out of this p'sent life wthout jssue Lawefull be gotten of their bodyes & before their dayes of payment of the said sevrall portions of forty pound to either of them be expired then I will & my mynd is that somes of mony of them or eyther of them so deceasinge being behind and unpayd at the daye or dayes of either of ther deathes shalbe equally devided betwixt all my children then & at the aforesaid dayes in wch they or eyther of them should have byne payd yf they hadd byne Lyveinge or amongst so many of them so shalbe then Lyveinge Provided also & my mynd is that if the said Thomas my sonne his heires executors adminstrators or assignes shall refuse or fayle to paye all such some or somes of mony & in such mannr & forme as is in this my p'sent testamt & specified and apointed by him to be payd accordind (sic - according) to my true intent & meaninge then I will that all the giftes before given unto the said Thomas ffullermy sonne shalbe unto Edward ffuller my sonne to have and to hould unto the said Edward & his heires & assignes forevr upon condic~on yt he shall pay all the said somes of mony wch the said Thomas should have payed wthin two yeres after the said Thomas shall have amde defaulte & I no~iate (sic - nominate) & appointe ffrannces my wife & Thomas my sonee my executors of this my testamt & last will In witnesse that this is my testamt & last will I declare & pnaunce (sic - pronounce) the same & hereunto putt my hand & seale the daye & yere abovesaid. Witnesses Thomas Wales John Sutton Willm ffuller
Proved at Stratton St. Mary on the last day of May A. D. 1614 by ffranncis ffuller the widow & relict & on the 16th June 1614 by Thomas ffuller, the executors
This copy of the will of Robert Fuller of Redenhall was extracted from the District Registry at Norwich and does not show any signature of the testator, Robert Fuller, or his mark. However, in pencil on the back of the last page is the notation: Bap. in Redenhall 4 Sept 1586 Sara Fuller dau. of Robert Fuller, butcher. Married in Renton (adjoining Redenhall) 26 Nov 1607 James Spalding and Sarah Fuller It is probable that Denton was originally written instead of Renton and has been transcribed incorrectly. This parish does not really adjoin Redenhall, but it is close, lying about three miles northeast.
The intent of the will can be abstracted as follows: 19 May 1614. Wife, Frances; for life or widowhood a tenement called Assyses in Harleston or Redenhall, with a little orchard, now occupied by son-in-law, James Spalding. Son, Thomas; a tenement lately built in Redenhall or Harleston; specific bequests of goods. Son, Edward; the said tenement on the death of wife; twenty pounds. Son, Samuel; fifteen pounds. Daughter, Ann; twenty pounds. Daughters, Elizabeth and Mary; forty pounds each. Residue of goods and chattels to be divided with half to wife, the other half equally divided among four children, Edward, Ann, Elizabeth and Mary. Grandson, John, son of son, John; to be bound as an apprentice; five pounds. Executors: wife, Francis; son, Thomas. Witnesses: Thomas Wales, John Sutton, William Fuller. Proved by wife, 31 May 1614; proved by son, Thomas, 16 June 1614. (Norfolk Archdeaconry Court, Norwich, Co. Norfolk, UK, Register 1614, folio 259. (cited in William Hyslop Fuller, Genealogy of Some Descendants of Edward Fuller of the Mayflower, C. B. Fiske & Co., Palmer, MA, 1908: pgs. 10-20.))
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4. William Hyslop Fuller, Genealogy of Some Descendants of Edward Fuller of the Mayflower, C. B. Fiske & Co., Palmer, MA, 1908: pg. 21.
"In 1896 Mr. Charles Candler, now of London, England, published a volume of 'Notes on the Parish of Redenhall with Harlston, In the County of Norfolk. Compiled Chiefly from the Records in the Town Chest,' in which there is a copy of a list of subscribers, in 1588, for the sixth bell in the Redenhall Chimes, and among the names on the list is that of Robert Fuller, 'bocher.' It appears that Redenhall Church, ..., has a famous chime of eight bells which are described in Candler's volume.
Writing of the building he says, 'Redenhall is a typical example of the class of almost pure Perpendicular churches with which Norfolk and Suffolk abound. The chief feature is the tower which can be matched by very few in the same style.' Writing of its age, 'The oldest portion of the existing Church was built in 1319.' Excavations show that the present edifice stands upon the site of an older structure."
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5. Charles Edward Banks, English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers, The Grafton Press, New York, NY, 1929: pg. 55. (Reprint available from Genealogical Publishing Co., 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD, 21202-3897)
6. Billie Redding Lewis, The Redding Family and Its Relatives, 6th Ed., Anundsen Publishing Co., Decorah, IA, 1992: pgs. 239-40.
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